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The Effects of Sex, Oral Contraception, and Menstrual Cycle Phase on Intraocular Pressure, Central Corneal Thickness, and Foveal Thickness: A Descriptive Analysis

1
Rosenberg School of Optometry, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
2
Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
3
Omni Vision, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vision 2021, 5(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5040048
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 12 October 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 18 October 2021
The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of sex, oral contraceptive (OC) use, and menstrual cycle phase on common ocular parameters assessed during ophthalmic evaluations, namely intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), and foveal thickness (FT), in young healthy adults. We measured IOP, CCT, and FT in 60 participants (16 men, 16 contraceptive users, and 28 cycling women) over two sessions that characterized the menstrual cycle phase in women. For men in our study, two sessions were separated by two weeks. For women, the two sessions were scheduled during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a trend towards higher IOP in men, and the difference was significant for white, non-Hispanic subjects and for white subjects considered separately. There was also a trend for thicker corneas in women, but men had significantly thicker foveae. CCT and FT were not different between men and OC-users, hinting at a moderating hormonal effect of oral contraceptive use. We found that IOP, CCT, and FT were equivalent between the follicular and luteal phases, which may be owing to the timing of our sessions. However, our findings strongly suggest that clinicians should consider contraceptive use during routine ophthalmic evaluations, as it could inform glaucomatous risk in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: sex differences; oral contraception; menstrual cycle; intraocular pressure; corneal thickness; foveal thickness sex differences; oral contraception; menstrual cycle; intraocular pressure; corneal thickness; foveal thickness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fortepiani, L.; Foutch, B.K.; Wilson, M.R. The Effects of Sex, Oral Contraception, and Menstrual Cycle Phase on Intraocular Pressure, Central Corneal Thickness, and Foveal Thickness: A Descriptive Analysis. Vision 2021, 5, 48. https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5040048

AMA Style

Fortepiani L, Foutch BK, Wilson MR. The Effects of Sex, Oral Contraception, and Menstrual Cycle Phase on Intraocular Pressure, Central Corneal Thickness, and Foveal Thickness: A Descriptive Analysis. Vision. 2021; 5(4):48. https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5040048

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fortepiani, Lourdes, Brian K. Foutch, and Molly R. Wilson. 2021. "The Effects of Sex, Oral Contraception, and Menstrual Cycle Phase on Intraocular Pressure, Central Corneal Thickness, and Foveal Thickness: A Descriptive Analysis" Vision 5, no. 4: 48. https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5040048

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