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Early Studies of Binocular and Binaural Directions

Department of Psychology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
Vision 2018, 2(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision2010013
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Direction)
Understanding how the eyes work together to determine the direction of objects provided the impetus for examining integration of signals from the ears to locate sounds. However, the advantages of having two eyes were recorded long before those for two ears were appreciated. In part, this reflects the marked differences in how we can compare perception with one or two organs. It is easier to close one eye and examine monocular vision than to “close” one ear and study monaural hearing. Moreover, we can move our eyes either in the same or in opposite directions, but humans have no equivalent means of moving the ears in unison. Studies of binocular single vision can be traced back over two thousand years and they were implicitly concerned with visual directions from each eye. The location of any point in visual or auditory space can be described by specifying its direction and distance, from the vantage point of an observer. From the late 18th century experiments indicated that binocular direction involved an eye movement component and experimental studies of binaural direction commenced slightly later. However, these early binocular and binaural experiments were not incorporated into theoretical accounts until almost a century later. The early history of research on visual direction with two eyes is contrasted to that on auditory direction with two ears. View Full-Text
Keywords: vision; audition; visual direction; auditory localization; stereoscope; pseudoscope; stethophone; pseudophone; Wells; Venturi vision; audition; visual direction; auditory localization; stereoscope; pseudoscope; stethophone; pseudophone; Wells; Venturi
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Wade, N.J. Early Studies of Binocular and Binaural Directions. Vision 2018, 2, 13.

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