- freely available
Inventions 2019, 4(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4030038
2. Operation of Hybrid Power Stations in Greek Insular Power Systems
- Case 1: If the total power output of the wind farms is less than the pump installed capacity of hybrid power station Ppump, the total generated wind power can be stored in the hybrid station with respect to the reservoir’s upper and lower limits.
- Case 2: If the total power output of the wind farms is greater than Ppump and less than 1.2 × Ppump, the amount of wind power that cannot been stored can be provided directly to the grid when there is capability of additional power injection to the grid from RES; otherwise, it is discarded.
3. Characteristics of Samos Insular System
4. Results and Discussion
- The efficiency of a pump unit is considered to be 78% and the efficiency of a hydro unit is considered to be 90%. As a result, the total efficiency of PHS unit is ntotal ≈ 70%.
- Ppump is considered to be equal to Phydro/ntotal.
- CF of newly installed WTs is considered to be equal to CF of the already installed wind farms (i.e., 29.38%).
- The minimum time interval of hydro turbine daily operation at its rated power (Phydro) is 2 h, as defined by the Greek operation code . The time interval of hydro turbine daily operation at its guaranteed power (Phydro) is 8 h.
- The days in which the power system operator needs the guaranteed energy from the PHS system, regardless of WTs production, are considered all the days of the year in which their daily energy is greater than 90% of the maximum daily energy of the year. For the Samos Island power system, this corresponds to 34 days per year (mainly in the summer period).
- The capacity of upper and lower reservoirs is considered to be sufficient in order to be able to provide continuous operation of hydro turbine at rated power (Phydro) for 14 h.
- The maximum WT penetration (with respect to net load) is considered to be 50%. In case of wind power shedding, newly installed WTs have priority in the reduction of their electric power.
4.1. Hybrid Power Station Financial Schemes Comparison
- Scenario 1: Energy delivered by PHS to the grid is paid 200 €/MWh. Energy absorbed from the grid has a cost of 140 €/MWh, which is equal to 200 × ntotal €/MWh.
- Scenario 2: Energy delivered by PHS to the grid is paid 147 €/MWh and PHS power availability is paid 127,000 €/MW annually. Energy absorbed from the grid has a cost of 103 €/MWh, which is equal to 147 × ntotal €/MWh.
4.2. Power System Operation considering Hybrid Power Station Existence
4.2.1. Small PHS Size (Phydro = 3.5 MW)
4.2.2. Medium PHS Size (Phydro = 7.0 MW)
4.2.3. Large PHS Size (Phydro = 10.5 MW)
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|Priority List||Unit Type||Pmax (MW)||Pmin (MW)||Fuel|
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