Next Article in Journal
Sponsored Libre Research Agreements to Create Free and Open Source Software and Hardware
Previous Article in Journal
Heat Transfer Performance Enhancement of Gravity Heat Pipes by Growing AAO Nanotubes on Inner Wall Surface
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Inventions and Innovations in Preclinical Platforms for Cancer Research

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9567, Iran
School of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Biomedical Materials & Devices (IBMD), University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Inventions 2018, 3(3), 43;
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Biotechnology and Materials)
PDF [2716 KB, uploaded 3 July 2018]


Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems can be regarded as suitable platforms to bridge the huge gap between animal studies and two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture to study chronic diseases such as cancer. In particular, the preclinical platforms for multicellular spheroid formation and culture can be regarded as ideal in vitro tumour models. The complex tumour microenvironment such as hypoxic region and necrotic core can be recapitulated in 3D spheroid configuration. Cells aggregated in spheroid structures can better illustrate the performance of anti-cancer drugs as well. Various methods have been proposed so far to create such 3D spheroid aggregations. Both conventional techniques and microfluidic methods can be used for generation of multicellular spheroids. In this review paper, we first discuss various spheroid formation phases. Then, the conventional spheroid formation techniques such as bioreactor flasks, liquid overlay and hanging droplet technique are explained. Next, a particular topic of the hydrogel in spheroid formation and culture is explored. This topic has received less attention in the literature. Hydrogels entail some advantages to the spheroid formation and culture such as size uniformity, the formation of porous spheroids or hetero-spheroids as well as chemosensitivity and invasion assays and protecting from shear stress. Finally, microfluidic methods for spheroid formation and culture are briefly reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: spheroid culture; microfluidic cell culture; spheroids on-chip; tumour microenvironment; in vitro cell culture spheroid culture; microfluidic cell culture; spheroids on-chip; tumour microenvironment; in vitro cell culture

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Moshksayan, K.; Kashaninejad, N.; Saidi, M.S. Inventions and Innovations in Preclinical Platforms for Cancer Research. Inventions 2018, 3, 43.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Inventions EISSN 2411-5134 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top