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Preliminary Evaluation of Moniliformin as a Potential Threat for Teleosts

1
BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Erber Campus 1, 3131 Getzersdorf, Austria
2
CCMAR, Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
3
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
4
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Medicine, University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Both authors contributed equally to this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract

Aquaculture feed manufacturers and producers increasingly recognize the importance of mycotoxins, which contaminate plant-based meals used in compound aquafeeds, and their potential to negatively impact production. Though data on the worldwide occurrence of legislated mycotoxins e.g., trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZEN) are well documented, relatively little information is available regarding other mycotoxins also produced by Fusarium, notably moniliformin (MON). Given that MON is known to affect the survival, growth, skeletal formation and bone mineralization in terrestrial species, its widespread occurrence on maize and maize by-products typically used in aquaculture makes it relevant to study these parameters in teleost fish. In the present work we have tested the effect of MON exposure on survival, bone development and mineralization using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model species and fish derived osteo-chondroprogenitor cell line for in vitro studies. Moniliformin exposure did not decrease bone mineralization in zebrafish larvae or extracellular matrix mineralization in the mineralogenic cell line VSa13. Here, the minimal in vitro cytotoxicity concentration was found to be 1000 µg L−1 MON. Incidence of deformities was also not altered by MON at the concentration tested (450 µg L−1) although larval growth was affected, as shown by a decrease in the standard length of exposed specimens at 20 days post fertilization. Survival decreased significantly in larvae exposed to MON concentrations higher than 900 μg L−1. Influence of MON on survival and growth might be relevant for aquaculture industry. As MON is a water-soluble mycotoxin, its leaching from feed is highly probable, so MON assimilation into the surrounding aqueous environment should also be considered. Tested levels in fish larvae are within the reported occurrence levels of MON in commercial feed and plant meals. View Full-Text
Keywords: zebrafish; emerging mycotoxins; Fusarium sp.; cytotoxicity; bone mineralization zebrafish; emerging mycotoxins; Fusarium sp.; cytotoxicity; bone mineralization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gonçalves, R.A.; Tarasco, M.; Schatzmayr, D.; Gavaia, P. Preliminary Evaluation of Moniliformin as a Potential Threat for Teleosts. Fishes 2018, 3, 4.

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