Die-rolling is the cryptographic task where two mistrustful, remote parties wish to generate a random D
-sided die-roll over a communication channel. Optimal quantum protocols for this task have been given by Aharon and Silman (New Journal of Physics, 2010) but are based on optimal weak coin-flipping protocols that are currently very complicated and not very well understood. In this paper, we first present very simple classical protocols for die-rolling that have decent (and sometimes optimal) security, which is in stark contrast to coin-flipping, bit-commitment, oblivious transfer, and many other two-party cryptographic primitives. We also present quantum protocols based on the idea of integer-commitment, a generalization of bit-commitment, where one wishes to commit to an integer. We analyze these protocols using semidefinite programming and finally give protocols that are very close to Kitaev’s lower bound for any
. Lastly, we briefly discuss an application of this work to the quantum state discrimination problem.
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