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Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2017, 3(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns3020014

Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency-A History of the TREC Assay

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lennart Hammarström
Received: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract

Infants born with T cell lymphopenias, especially severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are at risk for serious, often fatal infections without intervention within the first year or two of life. The majority of these disorders can be detected through the use of the T cell recombination excision circle assay (TREC assay.) The TREC assay detects the presence of non-replicating, episomal DNA that is formed during T cell development. This assay initially developed to measure thymic output during aging and HIV infection, has undergone modifications for the purpose of newborn screening (NBS) for SCID. To meet the requirements for inclusion on NBS panels, the assay needed to utilize blood from dried blood spots on NBS cards, and be both sensitive and specific, avoiding the costs of false positives. Currently, the assay relies upon real time, quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to detect TRECs in punches taken from dried blood spots. This review seeks to highlight some of the early work leading up to the initial implementation of the TREC assay for SCID detection, and the subsequent revisions made to optimize the assay. View Full-Text
Keywords: newborn screening; severe combined immunodeficiency; T-cell lymphopenia; T-cell receptor excision circle; TREC assay newborn screening; severe combined immunodeficiency; T-cell lymphopenia; T-cell receptor excision circle; TREC assay
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bausch-Jurken, M.T.; Verbsky, J.W.; Routes, J.M. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency-A History of the TREC Assay. Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2017, 3, 14.

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