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Biogenic Metal Oxides

1
Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, 1060 Vienna, Austria
2
Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, 1060 Vienna, Austria
3
CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomimetics 2020, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5020029
Received: 4 June 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
Biogenic metal oxides (MxOy) feature structures as highly functional and unique as the organisms generating them. They have caught the attention of scientists for the development of novel materials by biomimicry. In order to understand how biogenic MxOy could inspire novel technologies, we have reviewed examples of all biogenic MxOy, as well as the current state of understanding of the interactions between the inorganic MxOy and the biological matter they originate from and are connected to. In this review, we first summarize the origins of the precursors that living nature converts into MxOy. From the point-of-view of our materials chemists, we present an overview of the biogenesis of silica, iron and manganese oxides, as the only reported biogenic MxOy to date. These MxOy are found across all five kingdoms (bacteria, protoctista, fungi, plants and animals). We discuss the key molecules involved in the biosynthesis of MxOy, the functionality of the MxOy structures, and the techniques by which the biogenic MxOy can be studied. We close by outlining the biomimetic approaches inspired by biogenic MxOy materials and their challenges, and we point at promising directions for future organic-inorganic materials and their synthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal oxides; biominerals; bio-inorganic chemistry; silica; iron oxide; manganese oxide metal oxides; biominerals; bio-inorganic chemistry; silica; iron oxide; manganese oxide
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Moura, H.M.; Unterlass, M.M. Biogenic Metal Oxides. Biomimetics 2020, 5, 29.

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