The development of new nanomaterials with high biomedical performance and low toxicity is essential to obtain more efficient therapy and precise diagnostic tools and devices. Recently, scientists often face issues of balancing between positive therapeutic effects of metal oxide nanoparticles and their toxic side effects. In this review, considering metal oxide nanoparticles as important technological and biomedical materials, the authors provide a comprehensive review of researches on metal oxide nanoparticles, their nanoscale physicochemical properties, defining specific applications in the various fields of nanomedicine. Authors discuss the recent development of metal oxide nanoparticles that were employed as biomedical materials in tissue therapy, immunotherapy, diagnosis, dentistry, regenerative medicine, wound healing and biosensing platforms. Besides, their antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral properties along with biotoxicology were debated in detail. The significant breakthroughs in the field of nanobiomedicine have emerged in areas and numbers predicting tremendous application potential and enormous market value for metal oxide nanoparticles.
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