2.1. Search Strategy
2.2. Inclusion Criteria
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. What is Skitching and What is Required?
|Skitching Type||Skitcher Characteristics||Source|
|Age||Gender||Motorized Vehicle Involved||Outcome||Other Information|
|Bicycle Skitching||12 & 14||Male||truck||internal injuries after losing balance and being partially run over (n = 1); fatality (n = 1)||Location of Incidents: Australia (n = 2)|
Driver Characteristics: stranger to cyclist (n = 2); truck driver became aware of the cyclists and tried to take evasive action (n = 1)
Circumstances that lead to fatality or injuries (if known or speculated): tyre of bike hit the car, bike flipped and cyclist run over (n = 1)
|Newspaper Articles: 2|
Incidents Covered in Articles: 2
|Skateboard Skitching||14–36; Mean Age: 19||Male||car (n = 8); truck (n = 3); pickup/ute (n = 2); moped (n = 1) and golf cart (n = 1)||Fatalities (n = 8); Serious Injuries: serious internal injuries (n = 2); serious head injuries (n = 4) and other minor injuries (n = 2).||Location of Incidents: USA (n = 12); Australia (n = 5)|
Driver Characteristics–Ages-16–18; most common friend or relative; driver suggested to be under influence of alcohol (n = 2)
Circumstances that lead to fatality or injuries (if known or speculated): speed–20–25 mph (USA articles); 30–50 km/h (Australian articles); lost control or let go; skitchers listed as wearing a helmet (n = 0); small towns (n = 3–Australia); multiple skitchers on the one car (n = 2); videos footage being taken (n = 2); person had prior experience undertaking skitching (n = 3)
|Newspaper Articles: 13 |
Other Sources: 7
Incidents Covered in Articles: 17
|Long board Skitching||18||Male||Car||Fatality||Location of Incident: USA (n = 1)|
Driver Characteristic: Age-18
Circumstances that lead to fatality or injuries (if known of speculated): <40 km/h (<25 mph); not wearing a helmet
|Newspaper Articles: 1 |
Incidents Covered in Articles: 1
3.2. Who Skitches and Why?
3.3. Why is Skitching Dangerous and What Are the Risk Factors?
3.3.1. The Skitching Host: The Motor Vehicle
3.3.2. The Skitching Host: Willing or Unwilling; Aware or Unaware?
|Relationship—Driver Known to Skitcher||Driver Awareness—Skitcher’s Presence on Vehicle||Driving Behavior—Likely Informed by Relationship and Awareness||Hypothesized Danger Level—Least (1) to Most (7) Dangerous * Based on Driving Speed and Stability, Capacity for Skitcher to Disengage Safely and Presence of Road Conditions|
|Driver Unknown||Unaware||Driving to road conditions||6-as likely following speed restrictions (typically reasonable acceleration ≥ 40 km/h)|
|Aware||Attempts to dislodge skitcher–going faster and/or swerving||7-Erratic driving behavior likely to result in a fall|
|Attempts to dislodge skitcher–purposefully stopping or slowing down||1-Skitcher will quickly detach from a slow or uncooperative vehicle|
|Drives normally as per road conditions||4-Likely to have concentration strongly diverted so dangerous for driver, other road users and skitcher|
|Driver Known||Unaware||Driving to road conditions||5-Assuming skitcher has good visibility of road, traffic and drivers behaviour|
|Aware||Driving to road conditions||3-Likely following speed restrictions but with concentration diverted|
|Driving for the sole purpose of being the host to the skitcher||2-Likely to not anticipate the impact of rapid acceleration on skitcher.|
3.3.3. The Skitcher and Agent: Experience, Environment and NMRWD
3.4. What Can Be Done to Prevent Engagement or the Injuries and Fatalities That Result from Engagement?
|Event Stage||Host||Agent||Vehicle||Physical Environment||Social Environment|
|Pre-event (before the fall)||Encourage appropriate use of NMRWD—including appropriate places for use and need for PPE use at all times||Manufacturers acknowledging limitations of device such as use at speed, stability and need for maintenance||Separate motorized vehicles from pedestrians and users of NMRWD||Provision of public amenities suitable for demographic to safely practice/use devices||Foster adolescent’s social norms to “call out” their friends when planning risky activities and if they proceed inform an adult.|
|Event (during fall and time of impact)||Teaching NMRWD users to fall safely and away from traffic/other users||Capacity for device to be controllable by user in times of instability at speed||Driver awareness and safe driving practices. Specific to skitching- if driver aware of skitcher’s presence to be conscious of their visibility and slow immediately if no longer visible||Suitable amount of space between motorized vehicles and between lanes and side walks||Observers if present to call for emergency assistance immediately upon witnessing a fall. Faster assistance increases the injured skitchers chances of survival.|
|Post-Event (after skitcher injured by fall)||Remain still, on the ground and in the recovery position until medical personnel arrive||Remove device away if in the way of provision of emergency medical assistance.||Driver and car to be moved if facilitates emergency medical personnel gaining better access to skitcher if not then do not attempt to move.||If something in physical environment resulted in causing instability of skitcher inform the appropriate council to remedy.||Surrender of any video footage to emergency service personnel who may require this for evidence. Observers seek counselling if required.|
3.4.1. Injury Prevention Strategies—Hierarchy of Control
Elimination—Law, Policies and Bans
Substitution—Improving Skate Park Design
Engineering Controls—Vehicle Modifications
Administrative Controls—Training and Restricting Purchasing
Personal Protective Equipment—Helmets
Conflicts of Interest
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