Next Article in Journal
Spatial Spectral Band Selection for Enhanced Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Classification Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Efficient Deconvolution Architecture for Heterogeneous Systems-on-Chip
Article

Realistic Dynamic Numerical Phantom for MRI of the Upper Vocal Tract

1
MR Physics, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas’s Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
2
Clinical Physics, Barts Health NHS Trust, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE, UK
3
Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (SBIC), Singapore 138667, Singapore
4
Centre for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, NIHR Barts Biomedical Research Centre (BRC), William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Imaging 2020, 6(9), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging6090086
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 8 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 27 August 2020
Dynamic and real-time MRI (rtMRI) of human speech is an active field of research, with interest from both the linguistics and clinical communities. At present, different research groups are investigating a range of rtMRI acquisition and reconstruction approaches to visualise the speech organs. Similar to other moving organs, it is difficult to create a physical phantom of the speech organs to optimise these approaches; therefore, the optimisation requires extensive scanner access and imaging of volunteers. As previously demonstrated in cardiac imaging, realistic numerical phantoms can be useful tools for optimising rtMRI approaches and reduce reliance on scanner access and imaging volunteers. However, currently, no such speech rtMRI phantom exists. In this work, a numerical phantom for optimising speech rtMRI approaches was developed and tested on different reconstruction schemes. The novel phantom comprised a dynamic image series and corresponding k-space data of a single mid-sagittal slice with a temporal resolution of 30 frames per second (fps). The phantom was developed based on images of a volunteer acquired at a frame rate of 10 fps. The creation of the numerical phantom involved the following steps: image acquisition, image enhancement, segmentation, mask optimisation, through-time and spatial interpolation and finally the derived k-space phantom. The phantom was used to: (1) test different k-space sampling schemes (Cartesian, radial and spiral); (2) create lower frame rate acquisitions by simulating segmented k-space acquisitions; (3) simulate parallel imaging reconstructions (SENSE and GRAPPA). This demonstrated how such a numerical phantom could be used to optimise images and test multiple sampling strategies without extensive scanner access. View Full-Text
Keywords: numerical simulations; phantoms; MRI; real-time; speech; upper vocal tract numerical simulations; phantoms; MRI; real-time; speech; upper vocal tract
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3909619
    Link: https://zenodo.org/record/3909619#.X0eWqzURVPY
    Description: File 1: Matlab file of the numerical simulation. Please, cite this article when using it. Video 1: Numerical simulation (Cartesian, 30fps). Video 2: Segmented k-space simulation at 4fps. Video 3: A SENSE reconstruction with an acceleration of 4 for a simulated 8-element coil. Video 4: A GRAPPA reconstruction with an acceleration of 4 for a simulated 8-element coil.
MDPI and ACS Style

Martin, J.; Ruthven, M.; Boubertakh, R.; Miquel, M.E. Realistic Dynamic Numerical Phantom for MRI of the Upper Vocal Tract. J. Imaging 2020, 6, 86. https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging6090086

AMA Style

Martin J, Ruthven M, Boubertakh R, Miquel ME. Realistic Dynamic Numerical Phantom for MRI of the Upper Vocal Tract. Journal of Imaging. 2020; 6(9):86. https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging6090086

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martin, Joe, Matthieu Ruthven, Redha Boubertakh, and Marc E. Miquel 2020. "Realistic Dynamic Numerical Phantom for MRI of the Upper Vocal Tract" Journal of Imaging 6, no. 9: 86. https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging6090086

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop