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Article

Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with Lithium Ion Battery Active Materials—A Proof-of-Concept Study

1
MEET Battery Research Center, University of Münster, Corrensstraße 46, 48149 Münster, Germany
2
Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Münster, Corrensstraße 28/30, 48149 Münster, Germany
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Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, University of Münster, Corrensstraße 48, 48149 Münster, Germany
4
Helmholtz-Institute Münster, IEK-12, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Corrensstraße 46, 48149 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Recycling 2020, 5(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5040026
Received: 21 August 2020 / Revised: 23 September 2020 / Accepted: 29 September 2020 / Published: 10 October 2020
The lithium-ion battery is the most powerful energy storage technology for portable and mobile devices. The enormous demand for lithium-ion batteries is accompanied by an incomplete recycling loop for used lithium-ion batteries and excessive mining of Li and transition metals. The hyperaccumulation of plants represents a low-cost and green technology to reduce environmental pollution of landfills and disused mining regions with low environmental regulations. To examine the capabilities of these approaches, the hyperaccumulation selectivity of Alyssum murale for metals in electrode materials (Ni, Co, Mn, and Li) was evaluated. Plants were cultivated in a conservatory for 46 days whilst soils were contaminated stepwise with dissolved transition metal species via the irrigation water. Up to 3 wt% of the metals was quantified in the dry matter of different plant tissues (leaf, stem, root) by means of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy after 46 days of exposition time. The lateral distribution was monitored by means of micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, revealing different storage behaviors for low and high metal contamination, as well as varying sequestration mechanisms for the four investigated metals. The proof-of-concept regarding the phytoextraction of metals from LiNi0.33Co0.33Mn0.33O2 cathode particles in the soil was demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperaccumulation; remediation; lithium-ion battery; lithium; transition metals; Alyssum murale; Laser ablation; µ-XRF hyperaccumulation; remediation; lithium-ion battery; lithium; transition metals; Alyssum murale; Laser ablation; µ-XRF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Henschel, J.; Mense, M.; Harte, P.; Diehl, M.; Buchmann, J.; Kux, F.; Schlatt, L.; Karst, U.; Hensel, A.; Winter, M.; Nowak, S. Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with Lithium Ion Battery Active Materials—A Proof-of-Concept Study. Recycling 2020, 5, 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5040026

AMA Style

Henschel J, Mense M, Harte P, Diehl M, Buchmann J, Kux F, Schlatt L, Karst U, Hensel A, Winter M, Nowak S. Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with Lithium Ion Battery Active Materials—A Proof-of-Concept Study. Recycling. 2020; 5(4):26. https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5040026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Henschel, Jonas, Maximilian Mense, Patrick Harte, Marcel Diehl, Julius Buchmann, Fabian Kux, Lukas Schlatt, Uwe Karst, Andreas Hensel, Martin Winter, and Sascha Nowak. 2020. "Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with Lithium Ion Battery Active Materials—A Proof-of-Concept Study" Recycling 5, no. 4: 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling5040026

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