Next Article in Journal
Grid Impacts of Uncoordinated Fast Charging of Electric Ferry
Previous Article in Journal
Infiltrated and Isostatic Laminated NCM and LTO Electrodes with Plastic Crystal Electrolyte Based on Succinonitrile for Lithium-Ion Solid State Batteries
Article

Application Dependent End-of-Life Threshold Definition Methodology for Batteries in Electric Vehicles

1
CIDETEC, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Po. Miramón 196, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
2
Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Mondragon Unibertsitatea, Arrasate, 20500 Gipuzkoa, Spain
3
AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Center for Low-Emission Transport, 1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Batteries 2021, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries7010012
Received: 22 December 2020 / Revised: 26 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
The end-of-life event of the battery system of an electric vehicle is defined by a fixed end-of-life threshold value. However, this kind of end-of-life threshold does not capture the application and battery characteristics and, consequently, it has a low accuracy in describing the real end-of-life event. This paper proposes a systematic methodology to determine the end-of-life threshold that describes accurately the end-of-life event. The proposed methodology can be divided into three phases. In the first phase, the health indicators that represent the aging behavior of the battery are defined. In the second phase, the application specifications and battery characteristics are evaluated to generate the end-of-life criteria. Finally, in the third phase, the simulation environment used to calculate the end-of-life threshold is designed. In this third phase, the electric-thermal behavior of the battery at different aging conditions is simulated using an electro-thermal equivalent circuit model. The proposed methodology is applied to a high-energy electric vehicle application and to a high-power electric vehicle application. The stated hypotheses and the calculated end-of-life threshold of the high-energy application are empirically validated. The study shows that commonly assumed 80 or 70% EOL thresholds could lead to mayor under or over lifespan estimations. View Full-Text
Keywords: end of life; lithium ion battery; simulation approach; electro-thermal model; electric vehicle end of life; lithium ion battery; simulation approach; electro-thermal model; electric vehicle
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Arrinda, M.; Oyarbide, M.; Macicior, H.; Muxika, E.; Popp, H.; Jahn, M.; Ganev, B.; Cendoya, I. Application Dependent End-of-Life Threshold Definition Methodology for Batteries in Electric Vehicles. Batteries 2021, 7, 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries7010012

AMA Style

Arrinda M, Oyarbide M, Macicior H, Muxika E, Popp H, Jahn M, Ganev B, Cendoya I. Application Dependent End-of-Life Threshold Definition Methodology for Batteries in Electric Vehicles. Batteries. 2021; 7(1):12. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries7010012

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arrinda, Mikel, Mikel Oyarbide, Haritz Macicior, Eñaut Muxika, Hartmut Popp, Marcus Jahn, Boschidar Ganev, and Iosu Cendoya. 2021. "Application Dependent End-of-Life Threshold Definition Methodology for Batteries in Electric Vehicles" Batteries 7, no. 1: 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries7010012

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop