Next Article in Journal
The Role of Self-Interaction Corrections, Vibrations, and Spin-Orbit in Determining the Ground Spin State in a Simple Heme
Next Article in Special Issue
Orientational Glasses: NMR and Electric Susceptibility Studies
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Low Field NMR Determination of pKa Values for Hydrophilic Drugs for Students in Medicinal Chemistry
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Magnetochemistry 2017, 3(4), 30;

Characterization of Halogen Bonded Adducts in Solution by Advanced NMR Techniques

Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università degli Studi di Pisa, via Giuseppe Moruzzi, 13, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3161 KB, uploaded 25 September 2017]   |  


In the last 20 years, a huge volume of experimental work into halogen bonding (XB) has been produced. Most of the systems have been characterized by solid state X-ray crystallography, whereas in solution the only routine technique is titration (by using 1H and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) or Raman spectroscopies, depending on the nature of the system), with the aim of characterizing the strength of the XB interaction. Unfortunately, titration techniques have many intrinsic limitations and they should be coupled with other, more sophisticated techniques to provide an accurate and detailed description of the geometry and stoichiometry of the XB adduct in solution. This review will show how crucial information about XB adducts can be obtained by advanced NMR techniques, nuclear Overhauser effect-based spectroscopies (NOESY, ROESY, HOESY…) and diffusion NMR techniques (PGSE or DOSY). View Full-Text
Keywords: halogen bonding; supramolecular chemistry; NMR spectroscopy halogen bonding; supramolecular chemistry; NMR spectroscopy

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ciancaleoni, G. Characterization of Halogen Bonded Adducts in Solution by Advanced NMR Techniques. Magnetochemistry 2017, 3, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Magnetochemistry EISSN 2312-7481 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top