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Open AccessReview

Ferromagnetic Multilayers: Magnetoresistance, Magnetic Anisotropy, and Beyond

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2
WestGrid/University Systems, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marius Andruh and Liviu F. Chibotaru
Magnetochemistry 2016, 2(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry2020022
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Anisotropy)
Obtaining highly sensitive ferromagnetic, FM, and nonmagnetic, NM, multilayers with a large room-temperature magnetoresistance, MR, and strong magnetic anisotropy, MA, under a small externally applied magnetic field, H, remains a subject of scientific and technical interest. Recent advances in nanofabrication and characterization techniques have further opened up several new ways through which MR, sensitivity to H, and MA of the FM/NM multilayers could be dramatically improved in miniature devices such as smart spin-valves based biosensors, non-volatile magnetic random access memory, and spin transfer torque nano-oscillators. This review presents in detail the fabrication and characterization of a few representative FM/NM multilayered films—including the nature and origin of MR, mechanism associated with spin-dependent conductivity and artificial generation of MA. In particular, a special attention is given to the Pulsed-current deposition technique and on the potential industrial applications and future prospects. FM multilayers presented in this review are already used in real-life applications such as magnetic sensors in automobile and computer industries. These material are extremely important as they have the capability to efficiently replace presently used magnetic sensors in automobile, electronics, biophysics, and medicine, among many others. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferromagnetic multilayers; magnetoresistance; magnetic anisotropy; pulsed-current deposition; sensors; magnetoplasmonics; 75.47.-m; 75.47.De; 75.30.Gw; 75.47.Pq; 75.70.Cn; 75.75.Cd; 73.63.-b; 78.67.-n ferromagnetic multilayers; magnetoresistance; magnetic anisotropy; pulsed-current deposition; sensors; magnetoplasmonics; 75.47.-m; 75.47.De; 75.30.Gw; 75.47.Pq; 75.70.Cn; 75.75.Cd; 73.63.-b; 78.67.-n
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rizal, C.; Moa, B.; Niraula, B.B. Ferromagnetic Multilayers: Magnetoresistance, Magnetic Anisotropy, and Beyond. Magnetochemistry 2016, 2, 22.

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