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Characterization of Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume) Floral Bud Development Using a Modified BBCH Scale and Analysis of the Relationship between BBCH Stages and Floral Primordium Development and the Dormancy Phase Transition

Aulacaspis yasumatsui Delivers a Blow to International Cycad Horticulture

Western Pacific Tropical Research Center, University of Guam, UOG Station, Mangilao, GU 96923, USA
Plant Collections Department, Nong Nooch Tropical Botanical Garden, 34/1 Sukhumvit Highway, Najomtien, Sattahip, Chonburi 20250, Thailand
Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Francini and Douglas D. Archbold
Horticulturae 2021, 7(6), 147;
Received: 23 April 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Horticulturae Ⅱ)
The literature covering the biology, invasion chronology, host plant responses, and control efforts of the armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hempitera: Diaspididae) is reviewed. The small size of this cycad pest and complex surface morphology of the host cycad organs combine to make visual detection of every cryptic infestation difficult or impossible to achieve. The international movement of Cycas revoluta Thunb. nursery plants and the presence of C. revoluta nursery industries in so many countries have enabled this pest to wreak havoc on the international cycad horticulture trade over the last 25 years. The short pre-oviposition period and considerable female fecundity lead to rapid population expansion on the plants initially infested in newly invaded regions. A depletion of non-structural carbohydrates accompanies long-term infestations and precedes plant death. Enemy escape within the invasive range allows the scale population growth to remain unchecked until anthropogenic efforts establish non-native biological control. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological control; cycad; Cycas micronesica; invasion biology biological control; cycad; Cycas micronesica; invasion biology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marler, T.E.; Lindström, A.J.; Watson, G.W. Aulacaspis yasumatsui Delivers a Blow to International Cycad Horticulture. Horticulturae 2021, 7, 147.

AMA Style

Marler TE, Lindström AJ, Watson GW. Aulacaspis yasumatsui Delivers a Blow to International Cycad Horticulture. Horticulturae. 2021; 7(6):147.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marler, Thomas E., Anders J. Lindström, and Gillian W. Watson 2021. "Aulacaspis yasumatsui Delivers a Blow to International Cycad Horticulture" Horticulturae 7, no. 6: 147.

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