Next Article in Journal
Effect of Foliar Supplied PGRs on Flower Growth and Antioxidant Activity of African Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of 130 Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Genotypes for Future Breeding Program Based on Qualitative and Quantitative Traits, and Various Genetic Parameters
 
 
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:
Background:
Article

Variation in Cadmium Accumulation among Potato Cultivars Grown on Different Agricultural Sites: A Potential Tool for Reducing Cadmium in Tubers

1
Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22516, Egypt
2
Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11241, Egypt
3
Faculty of Desert Agriculture, King Salman International University, Ras Sedr 46618, Egypt
4
Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32308, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Horticulturae 2021, 7(10), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7100377
Submission received: 17 August 2021 / Revised: 20 September 2021 / Accepted: 27 September 2021 / Published: 8 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biotic and Abiotic Stress)

Abstract

:
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important crop in Egypt with great trade value for the export market. The addition of agrochemicals with possibly containing heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), decreases the quality of the final product. Generally, little is known about the factors that influence Cd content in this crop. The current study estimated the Cd levels in different organs of three potato cultivars grown in four commercial regions across Egypt. Further, we investigated the soil properties that affected Cd uptake during two growing seasons. With the exception of the Cd content of the soils, no relationships were detected between the tested soil properties (i.e., pH, conductivity, organic matter, and clay content) and Cd content in potato organs, because the soil from different regions showed comparable levels for these parameters. The average Cd content in the peeled tubers among different cultivars (0.145 mg Kg−1 DW) was below the maximum limit (0.5 mg Kg−1 DW). The patterns of Cd accumulation in potato organs were constant among cultivars, with the highest levels detected in leaves (~82%), followed by stems (~16.5%), and the lowest content observed in tubers (~1.5%). The study showed that the tested potato cultivars exhibited diversity in the accumulation levels of Cd in the tubers (~2.6-fold). The cultivar Suntana displayed the lowest Cd levels among different field sites for the two growing seasons, suggesting the potential involvement of genetic factors.

1. Introduction

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal with adverse impacts on human health. One of the primary sources of Cd intake for humans is the consumption of crops containing Cd [1,2,3]. Cadmium accumulation in crops has been a major concern worldwide due to the potential health risks of accessing the human diet and/or trade risks where crop standards are not fitted. Concurrently with rice and wheat, potato is an important food crop and a significant source of Cd [3]. Therefore, reduced levels of Cd in potatoes are important for its quality.
Fan et al. [2] demonstrated that the potato plant accumulates Cd that may exceed the recommended level for human consumption without negatively affecting plant growth. The European Union (European Commission and food standards [EC-No 1661/2006]) has set the maximum level of Cd in potato tubers at 0.1 mg Kg−1 FW.
Previous studies illustrated that Cd is introduced to agricultural soils through five primary sources: (1) extensive phosphate fertilizer use; (2) atmospheric deposition; (3) livestock manures; (4) industrial wastes and sewage sludge; and (5) natural Cd from bedrock [2,4,5]. For Cd accumulation in the plant, the contribution of each Cd source varies with soil properties and geographical locations of the field [3]. Soil properties such as pH level, organic matter, and clay have been reported to alter Cd accumulation in plants [5]. Al Mamun et al. [6] reported on the significance of increased soil organic matter and pH on reducing Cd content in potato plants. Oborn et al. [7] determined that soil pH and organic matter content were negatively associated with Cd content across various field sites. However, Tack [8] reported no relationship between Cd content in potato plants and soil pH or organic matter content.
In addition to soil properties (external factors), genetic variation between cultivars determines plant Cd accumulation [2,3,5,9]. For instance, Gray et al. [3] showed differences (~2.8-fold) in Cd levels among commercial cultivars grown in different sites. Additionally, Ozturk et al. [9] reported that Cd levels in potato plant tubers were between 0.08 and 0.32 mg Kg−1 DW in 16 potato genotypes. The differences in Cd accumulation between cultivars (genotypes) in other plant species were also reported [5,10].
Some of the previous studies have addressed the mechanisms underlying such diversity in potato and other plant species. A study by Dunbar et al. [11] suggested that the variation in tuber Cd content between the potato varieties, Kennebec and Wilwash, was exclusively attributable to the partitioning of total Cd among plant organs, and the cultivars did not vary in their total Cd absorption. Similarly, variations in grain Cd content between two near-isogenic durum wheat varieties were associated with discrepancies in Cd distribution among organs rather than overall Cd uptake variations, according to Harris and Taylor [12]. However, studies by Perrier et al. [13] and Mengist et al. [14] clarified significant differences in Cd root uptake among wheat and potato cultivars, respectively. The molecular mechanism underlying the differences in Cd uptake of rice and peanut genotypes has recently been identified [15,16,17]. In these studies, they suggested that the stimulated Cd uptake in high Cd content cultivars was mainly due to the abundance of Cd transporter mRNAs. Overall, the disparity in Cd root uptake and Cd partitioning among organs suggests the presence of more than one mechanism that coordinates Cd content in edible plant parts [14].
In Egypt, potato is a staple food and an important export crop. Egypt produces ~5% of the global potato export market, worth ~259.6 million USD [18]. However, little information is known about the factors that determine Cd accumulation under Egyptian conditions. The current investigation aimed to (i) assess the differences in Cd accumulation between three economically important potato cultivars in different growing areas; and (ii) investigate the effect of the soil and irrigation water parameters on Cd accumulation in potato. This research outcome is important to establish management strategies, such as promoting low-Cd accumulating cultivars and setting guidelines for soil and water irrigation to control the accumulation of Cd in potatoes under Egyptian conditions.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Growing Sites and Cultivars

Field experiments were carried out at four commercial field sites in Egypt, including Ismailia, A (30°59′ N, 32°10′ E); Wadi El-Natroun, B (30°58′ N, 30°27′ E); Modereyet El-Tahrir, C (30°37′ N, 30°68′ E); and Al-Minya, D (28°16′ N, 30°59′ N). The experiments were conducted during the growing seasons of 2018 and 2019 (approximately mid of January to the end of April). In both growing seasons, potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) were carefully planted in the same field spot in each commercial field site. The potato cultivars used in the study were Spounta, Hermes, and Suntana. They were selected due to their great commercial value for both local and export markets. The plants were grown in five plots (replicates) for each field site, arranged in a randomized design. Each plot consisted of three ridges of 3 m in length, 0.75 m in width, and a total area of 6.75 m2. Potato plants were grown using cultivation practices as recommended for the commercial potato production for the sandy soils.

2.2. Samples Collection and Analysis

Plant and soil sampling were collected at the potato harvest stage. Five soil samples were mixed to make one composite sample for each plot (five plots). Soil samples (15 cm depth) were ground to <2 mm and then oven-dried at 35 °C until a constant weight was attained. The soil pH was recorded in a soil:water solution (1:2) using a glass electrode, as suggested by Blakemore [19]. The contents of soil organic matters were measured by the modified Walkley–Black method, as reported by Nelson and Sommers [20]. Electrical conductivity (E.C.) was analyzed, for each sample, in the soil solution as reported by Stolt et al. [5].
Three plots were used for plant samples and five plants were collected from each plot. The plants were carefully rinsed several times and then separated into leaves, stems, and tubers. The outer potato tuber skin was carefully removed to form tuber flesh and peel samples. The washed potato plants were oven-dried (60 °C) to constant weight and then ground to pass a 2mm mesh sieve. For each plant organ, a single plant sample was collected (equal size) from the five dried plant materials within each plot.
The levels of Cd in soil and plant samples were measured, as described by Clarke et al. [10], with some modifications. In brief, dried soil (0.6 g) was digested in concentrated HCl and HNO3-HClO4 (87:13, v/v). The plant materials (0.4 g dry tissue) were digested in a solution of HNO3-HClO4-H2O2, prepared with a ratio of 87:13:10; v/v/v. The Cd levels of digestion solutions were analyzed by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer device (Perkin Elmer 2380 model, Norwalk, CT, USA). To measure the Cd content of irrigation water, five water samples were used from the irrigation well of each commercial field site. The water samples were acidified with HNO3 and stored at 4 °C until analysis [21]. Irrigation water samples were analyzed for Cd by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer device (model, Perkin Elmer 2380).

2.3. Data Analysis

Statistical analyses were performed using the CoStat (Version 6.4, Monterey, CA, USA) software program. The experimental design was split plots in a randomized complete block design, where potato cultivars were arranged in the main plots, and the field sites were randomly placed in the sub-plots. The probability level of p < 0.05 resulted from the LSD analysis (least significant difference) showed a significant effect. The relations between a dependent variable (Cd in potato plant) and independent variables (Cd in soil and water) were investigated employing SPSS version 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) following a multiple regression path analysis.

3. Results and Discussion

Soil properties of selected commercial field sites in both seasons are presented in Table 1. The mean of total Cd in the tested soils ranged between 12 and 25 ppm, with an overall average of 18.5 ppm. In both seasons, the total soil Cd concentration was highest at site D > B > A > C. It is important to mention that the concentration of soil Cd at the four tested sites exceeded the maximum allowable concentration for Cd (8 ppm) as reported by Allen et al., Eriksson, Kabata-Pendias, and Naggar et al. [22,23,24,25]. The concentrations of soil Cd, observed in the current study, were quite similar to the values that were collected by Naggar et al. [25] but greater than those shown by Nassef et al. [26] and Abou-Shanab et al. [27] for the Egyptian soils. These variations may result from differences in soil nature, environmental pollution, and the application of fertilizers at each site. Further, the results showed that the highest concentration of Cd irrigation water was detected at sites A and D, without significant differences between the two sites, followed by sites B and C.
Soil pH is an essential factor coordinating Cd bioavailability and Cd plant uptake. Liu et al. [28] and Al Mamun et al. [6] showed that plants accumulated less Cd in alkaline soils than acidic soils. The pH of Egyptian soil is generally in the alkaline range (7.7–8.3) [27,29,30]. Accordingly, the pH of the tested field sites ranged between 8.1 and 8.27 in both seasons, without significant differences between the four sites (Table 1). Typically, the electrical conductivity (E.C.) of soil, organic matter, and clay contents influence plant Cd accumulation. These factors may determine the extent to which the soil binds heavy metals and the extent of their solubility [3,5]. However, no significant differences were detected in these soil parameters between the four field sites (Table 1).
Independent of growing sites, the tested cultivars displayed significant differences in Cd contents among different potato plant organs (peeled tuber, peel, unpeeled tuber, stem, and leaves) (Table 2 and Table 3). In both seasons, our results demonstrated that the Spounta cultivar had the highest Cd contents for all potato organs, followed by the Hermes cultivar, and then the Suntana cultivar with some exceptions. The Cd content in the peeled tuber of Spounta and Hermes cultivars exhibited similar contents in the second season only (Table 3).
The results align with those of Jönsson and Asp [31] and Mengist et al. [14], who reported that cultivars with higher tuber-Cd levels also had higher leaves-Cd contents. Positive associations between Cd content in the leaves and edible parts have also been found in wheat and pepper cultivars [13]. Mengist et al. [14] suggested that higher leaf Cd content might drive greater phloem loading of Cd, resulting in more Cd translocation to the tubers. However, unlike our findings, a study by Dunbar et al. [11] reported that the variation in tuber Cd content between the potato varieties Kennebec and Wilwash was exclusively attributable to the partitioning of total Cd amongst plant organs, where the low tuber Cd content cultivar was associated with more Cd accumulation in leaves. The same study showed that cultivars did not vary in total Cd absorption. Mengist et al. [14] suggested that differences in total root uptake of Cd are important, with higher root uptake in the high Cd accumulating potato cultivar. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known. This suggests the presence of more than one mechanism concerning differential tuber Cd content in potatoes. The variations in such mechanisms are most likely related to cultivars, as potatoes have a broad genetic variation and regional adaptability. Regardless of the uptake mechanisms, the differences in Cd content between potato cultivars expressed the potential application of low Cd accumulating potato cultivars (e.g., Suntana) or genotypes at the commercial fields with high soil Cd levels. Accordingly, including Cd accumulation trait in future plant breeding programs, which is not common, alongside other common traits such as disease resistance and yield, should be considered [3].
Our data demonstrated that Cd content in different organs of potato cultivars widely ranged between 0.11 and 10.9 mg Kg−1 DW, with approximately 1.5%, 16.5%, and 82% of total Cd allocated in the unpeeled tuber (whole tuber), stem, and leaves, respectively (Table 2 and Table 3). Such results were supported by the findings of Mengist et al. [14], who reported that the contents of Cd in potato tubers were low compared to other organs (stem and leaves), regardless of cultivar diversity. Cadmium is absorbed by the basal roots, transported to potato leaves through the xylem tissues, and remobilized by phloem tissues into tubers. Thus, while Cd is mobile in the phloem, Cd tends to be mainly sequestered in potato shoots.
Regardless of potato cultivars, the data in the current study indicate that the contents of Cd in potato plant organs were significantly affected by the different growing sites (Table 2 and Table 3). In both growing seasons, the highest contents of Cd in the peeled tuber, peel, and unpeeled tuber were observed in potato plants grown at sites B and D, followed by site A, while the lowest values were recorded for site C. The highest contents of Cd in potato stem and leaves have remained at sites B and D, but without significant difference between the values that were observed at site A in both seasons, excluding site D, which showed significantly lower contents of Cd in potato stem in the second season only (Table 3). However, the lowest contents of Cd in potato stem and leaves were reported at site C (Table 2 and Table 3). As indicated in Table 4, the regression analysis displayed a notable positive response of Cd content in the different potato plant organs to Cd content in the soil. Meanwhile, in most cases, different organs of the plant did not respond to Cd irrigation water under the current experimental conditions. Therefore, we suggested that these differences in the plant Cd content between sites were more related to the concentrations of Cd in the soil. A positive relationship between soil Cd concentration and plant Cd accumulation was reported in potatoes [3] and other plant species [23,32].
The interactive effects of potato cultivars and field sites on the contents of Cd in potato plant organs (peeled tuber, peel, unpeeled tuber, stem, and leaves) were displayed in Table 2 and Table 3. The highest contents of Cd in peeled tuber were noted with Spounta cultivar grown at sites B and D in both seasons, plus Hermes cultivar grown at sites B and D in the first growing season and site B in the second growing season. On the other hand, in the first season, the lowest contents of Cd in peeled tuber were determined with Suntana cultivar collected from all four sites plus Spounta and Hermes cultivars grown at site C. By contrast, in the second season, the lowest Cd values were obtained from Spounta and Suntana cultivars at site C (Table 3). Our results showed that Cd content in the peeled tuber cultivars ranged between 0.08 and 0.21 mg Kg−1 DW across the tested field sites in both seasons, with a mean content of 0.145 mg Kg−1 DW (Table 2 and Table 3). According to the European Commission food standards (EC 1661/2006), the proposed tolerance content for Cd in peeled tuber is 0.1 mg Kg−1 FW. Assuming a potato tuber DW content of 20% [2,3], the tolerance content for Cd on a DM basis is 0.5 mg Kg−1 DW. In the current study, no peeled tuber samples exceeded the tolerance content for Cd.
Similar patterns for the highest and the lowest Cd content in peeled tubers were also noted in peeled and unpeeled tubers in both seasons, but with minor differences (Table 2 and Table 3). It is worth mentioning that in some European countries, potato is consumed without removing the peel. Therefore, it is also worthy to know the content of Cd in the whole potato tuber (unpeeled tuber). The content of Cd in whole tuber samples tested in this study (0.11–0.31 mg) remains compliant with the European Commission and food standards (EC-No 1661/2006) of 0.1 mg Kg−1 FW. Norton et al. [33] and Gray et al. [3] have suggested that peel holds higher Cd content than flesh, and a proportion of Cd could be removed by peeling the potato tubers.
The highest contents of Cd in potato stems and leaves were exclusively observed in the Spounta cultivar grown at sites A, B, and D in both growing seasons. However, the Spounta cultivar from site C and Suntana from sites C and D exhibited the lowest Cd contents in the stem for both seasons (Table 2 and Table 3). Similarly, the Suntana cultivar from site C (both season) and site D (first season), as well as the Spounta cultivar from site C (first season), showed the lowest average Cd content in leaves.

4. Conclusions

The current study showed variability in the Cd contents of soil and irrigation water throughout different commercial field sites in Egypt. In addition, there are significant differences (~2.6-fold) in the Cd content of peeled tubers between the tested potato cultivars. Among the tested cultivars, Spounta and Suntana showed the lowest and the highest Cd content in tubers, respectively. These two cultivars could be chosen to study the molecular mechanism responsible for cultivar differences in Cd accumulation. Therefore, a comparative transcriptome analysis as a further study is needed.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, methodology, investigation, formal analysis, validation, data curation, S.H.B., I.E.-S. and I.A.A.; visualization, writing—original draft preparation, writing—review and editing, I.A.A., I.E.-S. and A.-G.M.E.-G.; resources, supervision, project administration, I.A.A. and S.H.B. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

All data is included in the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Cavanagh, J.-E.; Yi, Z.; Gray, C.W.; Munir, K.; Lehto, N.; Robinson, B.H. Cadmium uptake by onions, lettuce and spinach in New Zealand: Implications for management to meet regulatory limits. Sci. Total Environ. 2019, 668, 780–789. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Fan, J.L.; Ziadi, N.; Bélanger, G.; Parent, L.É.; Cambouris, A.; Hu, Z.Y. Cadmium accumulation in potato tubers produced in Quebec. Can. J. Soil Sci. 2009, 89, 435–443. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Gray, C.W.; Yi, Z.; Lehto, N.J.; Robinson, B.H.; Munir, K.; Cavanagh, J.A.E. Effect of cultivar type and soil properties on cadmium concentrations in potatoes. New Zeal. J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 2019, 47, 182–197. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Loganathan, P.; Hedley, M.J.; Grace, N.D.; Lee, J.; Cronin, S.J.; Bolan, N.S.; Zanders, J.M. Fertiliser contaminants in New Zealand grazed pasture with special reference to cadmium and fluorine: A review. Aust. J. Soil Res. 2003, 41, 501–532. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Stolt, P.; Asp, H.; Hultin, S. Genetic variation in wheat cadmium accumulation on soils with different cadmium concentrations. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 2006, 192, 201–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Al Mamun, S.; Lehto, N.J.; Cavanagh, J.; McDowell, R.; Aktar, M.; Benyas, E.; Robinson, B.H. Effects of Lime and Organic Amendments Derived from Varied Source Materials on Cadmium Uptake by Potato. J. Environ. Qual. 2017, 46, 836–844. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  7. Oborn, I.; Jansson, G.; Johnsson, L. A field study on the influence of soil pH on trace element levels in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and carrots (Daucus carota). Water Air Soil Pollut. 1995, 85, 835–840. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Tack, F.M.G. Trace Elements in Potato. Potato Res. 2014, 57, 311–325. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Ozturk, E.; Atsan, E.; Polat, T.; Kara, K. Variation in heavy metal concentrations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars. J. Anim. Plant. Sci. 2011, 21, 235–239. [Google Scholar]
  10. Clarke, J.M.; Norvell, W.A.; Clarke, F.R.; Buckley, W.T. Concentration of cadmium and other elements in the grain of near-isogenic durum lines. Can. J. Plant. Sci. 2002, 82, 27–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Dunbar, K.R.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Reid, R.J. The uptake and partitioning of cadmium in two cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). J. Exp. Bot. 2003, 54, 349–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Harris, N.S.; Taylor, G.J. Cadmium uptake and partitioning in durum wheat during grain filling. BMC Plant. Biol. 2013, 13, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  13. Perrier, F.; Yan, B.; Candaudap, F.; Pokrovsky, O.S.; Gourdain, E.; Meleard, B.; Bussière, S.; Coriou, C.; Robert, T.; Nguyen, C.; et al. Variability in grain cadmium concentration among durum wheat cultivars: Impact of aboveground biomass partitioning. Plant. Soil 2016, 404, 307–320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  14. Mengist, M.F.; Milbourne, D.; Griffin, D.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Creedon, J.; Jones, P.W.; Alves, S. Cadmium uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars with different tuber-Cd concentration. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2017, 24, 27384–27391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Yu, R.; Ma, Y.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, C.; Du, X.; Shi, G. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed key factors for differential cadmium transport and retention in roots of two contrasting peanut cultivars. BMC Genom. 2018, 19, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  16. Sui, F.-Q.; Chang, J.-D.; Tang, Z.; Liu, W.-J.; Huang, X.-Y.; Zhao, F.-J. Nramp5 expression and functionality likely explain higher cadmium uptake in rice than in wheat and maize. Plant. Soil 2018, 433, 377–389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Yan, H.; Xu, W.; Xie, J.; Gao, Y.; Wu, L.; Sun, L.; Feng, L.; Chen, X.; Zhang, T.; Dai, C.; et al. Variation of a major facilitator superfamily gene contributes to differential cadmium accumulation between rice subspecies. Nat. Commun. 2019, 10, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  18. Potatonewstoday May 2020—Potato News Today. Available online: https://www.potatonewstoday.com/2020/05/ (accessed on 4 November 2020).
  19. Blakemore, L. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Soils; [Rev. ed.]; NZ Soil Bureau Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research: Lower Hutt, New Zealand, 1987.
  20. Nelson, D.W.; Sommers, L.E. Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2015; pp. 539–579. [Google Scholar]
  21. Chubaka, C.E.; Whiley, H.; Edwards, J.W.; Ross, K.E. Lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium content of water from South Australian rainwater tanks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1551. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  22. Allen, S.; Grimshaw, H.M.; Parkinson, J.A.; Quarmby, C. Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials; Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 1974. [Google Scholar]
  23. Eriksson, J.E. The influence of pH, soil type and time on adsorbtion and uptake by plants of Cd added to the soil. Water. Air. Soil Pollut. 1989, 48, 317–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Kabata-Pendias, A. Agricultural Problems Related to Excessive Trace Metal Contents of Soils. In Heavy Metals; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 1995; pp. 3–18. [Google Scholar]
  25. Al Naggar, Y.; Naiem, E.; Mona, M.; Giesy, J.P.; Seif, A. Metals in agricultural soils and plants in Egypt. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 2014, 96, 730–742. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Nassef, M.; EI-Tahawy, M.S.; Hannigan, R.; EL Sayed, K.A. Determination of Some Heavy Metals In The Environment of SADAT Industrial City. In Proceedings of the Second Environmental Physics Conference (EPC-2006), Alexandria, Egypt, 18–22 February 2007. [Google Scholar]
  27. Abou-Shanab, R.A.; Ghozlan, H.A.; Ghanem, K.M.; Moawad, H.A. Heavy Metals in Soils and Plants from Various Metal.-Contaminated Sites in Egypt. Terr. Aquat. Environ. Toxicol. 2007, 1, 7–12. [Google Scholar]
  28. Liu, K.; Lv, J.; He, W.; Zhang, H.; Cao, Y.; Dai, Y. Major factors influencing cadmium uptake from the soil into wheat plants. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2015, 113, 207–213. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Sary Hassan, M.B.; Ibrahim Ali, A.A. The Combined Use of Beneficial Soil Microorganisms Enhanced the Growth and Efficiently Reduced Lead Content in Leaves of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Plant under Lead Stress. Alexandria J. Agric. Sci. 2019, 64, 41–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  30. Brengi, S.H.; Abouelsaad, I.A. The Role of Different Nitrogen Sources Combined with Foliar Applications of Molybdenum, Selenium or Sucrose in Improving Growth and Quality of Edible Parts of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Alexandria Sci. Exch. J. 2019, 40, 156–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  31. Jönsson, E.H.L.; Asp, H. Influence of nitrogen supply on cadmium accumulation in potato tubers. J. Plant Nutr. 2011, 34, 345–360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Chang, C.Y.; Yu, H.Y.; Chen, J.J.; Li, F.B.; Zhang, H.H.; Liu, C.P. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaf vegetables from agricultural soils and associated potential health risks in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2014, 186, 1547–1560. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  33. Norton, G.J.; Deacon, C.M.; Mestrot, A.; Feldmann, J.; Jenkins, P.; Baskaran, C.; Meharg, A.A. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK. Sci. Total Environ. 2015, 533, 520–527. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
Table 1. Soil properties and Cd contents of irrigation water from four locations (A, B, C, and D), sampled at the end (harvest) of the growing season during two years (2018 and 2019).
Table 1. Soil properties and Cd contents of irrigation water from four locations (A, B, C, and D), sampled at the end (harvest) of the growing season during two years (2018 and 2019).
First Season
ParameterField Site
ABCD
Total soil Cd (ppm)18 c21 b12 d25 a
Irrigation water Cd (ppm)0.110 a0.092 b0.087 b0.107 a
Organic matter (%)0.790.720.770.83
pH8.168.128.278.23
E.C. (dS cm−1)2.122.21.992.14
Sand (%)88.385.385.786.3
Silt (%)7.710.311.311
Clay (%)44.232.7
Soil textureSandySandySandySandy
Second Season
ParameterField Site
ABCD
Total soil Cd (ppm)19.70 c20.43 b13.18 d23.45 a
Irrigation water Cd (ppm)0.10 a0.88 b0.85 b0.11 a
Organic matter (%)0.870.910.80.8
pH8.18.178.228.19
E.C. (dS cm−1)1.982.11.911.89
Sand (%)86.886.185.286
Silt (%)10.19.9811.511.5
Clay (%)3.13.93.32.5
Soil textureSandySandySandySandy
Means followed by different letters within each soil parameter are considered significantly different (p < 0.05). In addition, means without letters in the same parameter are not considered significantly different (p > 0.05).
Table 2. The contents of cadmium (Cd) in potato plant organs (peeled tuber, peel, unpeeled tuber, stem, and leaves) as affected by potato cultivars, field sites, and their interaction in the first season.
Table 2. The contents of cadmium (Cd) in potato plant organs (peeled tuber, peel, unpeeled tuber, stem, and leaves) as affected by potato cultivars, field sites, and their interaction in the first season.
Peeled Tubers
(mg Kg−1)
Peel
(mg Kg−1)
Unpeeled Tubers
(mg Kg−1)
Stem
(mg Kg−1)
Leaves
(mg Kg−1)
CultivarsSpounta0.19 A0.31 A0.23 A1.99 A10.60 A
Hermes0.15 B0.23 B0.19 B1.81 B9.46 B
Suntana0.11 C0.17 C0.14 C1.61 C8.37 C
SitesA0.13 B0.22 B0.17 B1.91 A9.54 A
B0.17 A0.27 A0.22 A1.93 A10.00 A
C0.10 C0.16 C0.13 C1.53 B8.06 B
D0.17 A0.26 A0.22 A1.82 A10.32 A
SpountaA0.15 bc0.25 bc0.20 bc2.06 ab9.60 b
B0.21 a0.33 a0.27 a2.15 a12.00 a
C0.11 cde0.18 d0.15 cde1.51 de7.98 cd
D0.21 a0.34 a0.27 a2.20 a12.83 a
HermesA0.14 cd0.20 cd0.17 cd1.80 bc9.87 b
B0.19 ab0.30 ab0.25 ab1.87 bc9.28 bc
C0.11 cde0.17 d0.14 de1.75 cd9.06 bc
D0.18 ab0.27 ab0.23 ab1.80 bc9.64 b
SuntanaA0.12 cde0.19 cd0.15 cde1.87 bc9.13 bc
B0.11 cde0.18 d0.15 cde1.77 cd8.71 bc
C0.08 e0.13 d0.11 e1.34 e7.14 d
D0.12 cde0.19 cd0.16 cd1.44 e8.49 bcd
Means with different uppercase letters for each main factor in the same plant parameter are considered significantly different (p < 0.05). The means with the different lowercase letters within each column table in the same plant parameter are considered significantly different (p < 0.05).
Table 3. The contents of cadmium (Cd) in potato plant organs (peeled tuber, peel, unpeeled tuber, stem, and leaves) as affected by potato cultivars, field sites, and their interaction in the second season.
Table 3. The contents of cadmium (Cd) in potato plant organs (peeled tuber, peel, unpeeled tuber, stem, and leaves) as affected by potato cultivars, field sites, and their interaction in the second season.
Peeled Tubers
(mg Kg−1)
Peel
(mg Kg−1)
Unpeeled Tubers
(mg Kg−1)
Stem
(mg Kg−1)
Leaves
(mg Kg−1)
CultivarsSpounta0.17 A0.27 A0.22 A1.98 A10.90 A
Hermes0.16 A0.24 B0.20 B1.82 B10.08 B
Suntana0.12 B0.18 C0.15 C1.64 C8.45 C
SitesA0.14 B0.21 B0.18 B1.93 A10.21 A
B0.18 A0.28 A0.23 A1.92 A10.29 A
C0.11 C0.17 C0.14 C1.57 C8.25 B
D0.16 A0.27 A0.21 A1.82 B10.48 A
SpountaA0.16 b0.24 cd0.20 b2.08 a9.90 cd
B0.20 a0.35 a0.28 a2.14 a12.40 a
C0.10 cd0.17 ef0.14 cd1.51 c8.36 f
D0.20 a0.33 a0.26 a2.18 a12.93 a
HermesA0.13 c0.20 de0.16 c1.84 b11.39 b
B0.19 a0.31 ab0.25 a1.84 b9.47 cde
C0.13 c0.18 ef0.15 c1.79 b9.32 de
D0.17 b0.27 bc0.22 b1.80 b10.15 c
SuntanaA0.13 c0.20 de0.17 c1.88 b9.34 de
B0.13 c0.19 e0.16 c1.78 b8.98 ef
C0.09 d0.14 f0.12 d1.41 c7.07 g
D0.13 c0.20 de0.16 c1.47 c8.35 f
Means with different uppercase letters for each main factor in the same plant parameter are considered significantly different (p < 0.05). The means with the different lowercase letters within each column table in the same plant parameter are considered significantly different (p < 0.05).
Table 4. Coefficient of soil/water Cd content and Cd levels in different plant organs.
Table 4. Coefficient of soil/water Cd content and Cd levels in different plant organs.
Cd SourcePlant OrgansCoefficient
Season 1Season 2
SpountaHermesSuntanaSpountaHermesSuntana
SoilPeeled tuber0.857 **0.869 **0.418 NS0.916 **0.560 NS0.576 *
Peel0.870 **0.842 **0.441 NS0.841 **0.712 **0.718 **
Unpeeled tuber0.858 **0.863 **0.450 NS0.885 **0.678 **0.731 **
Stem0.908 **0.926 NS0.255 NS0.944 **0.062 NS0.285 NS
Leaves0.707 NS1.086 NS6.833 **0.910 **0.332 NS0.661 **
WaterPeeled tuber0.256 NS0.181 NS0.256 NS−0.301 NS0.193 NS−0.379 NS
Peel0.288 NS0.151 NS0.303 NS−0.136 NS0.106 NS0.661 **
Unpeeled tuber0.281 NS0.184 NS0.297 NS−0.217 NS0.161 NS−0.639 *
Stem0.563 NS−0.015 NS0.288 NS−0.524 NS0.015 NS−0.165 NS
Leaves0.430 NS0.265 NS0.590 *−0.240 NS−0.799 **−0.447 NS
* Significant at p < 0.05, ** Significant at p < 0.01, NS Not Significant.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Brengi, S.H.; El-Gindy, A.-G.M.; El-Sharkawy, I.; Abouelsaad, I.A. Variation in Cadmium Accumulation among Potato Cultivars Grown on Different Agricultural Sites: A Potential Tool for Reducing Cadmium in Tubers. Horticulturae 2021, 7, 377. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7100377

AMA Style

Brengi SH, El-Gindy A-GM, El-Sharkawy I, Abouelsaad IA. Variation in Cadmium Accumulation among Potato Cultivars Grown on Different Agricultural Sites: A Potential Tool for Reducing Cadmium in Tubers. Horticulturae. 2021; 7(10):377. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7100377

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brengi, Sary H., Abdel-Ghany M. El-Gindy, Islam El-Sharkawy, and Ibrahim A. Abouelsaad. 2021. "Variation in Cadmium Accumulation among Potato Cultivars Grown on Different Agricultural Sites: A Potential Tool for Reducing Cadmium in Tubers" Horticulturae 7, no. 10: 377. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7100377

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop