Characterizing the Phenotypic Responses of Escherichia coli to Multiple 4-Carbon Alcohols with Raman Spectroscopy
AbstractThe phenotypic responses of E. coli cells exposed to 1.2% (v/v) of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, and 1,4-butanediol were studied in near real-time using Raman spectroscopy. A method of “chemometric fingerprinting” was employed that uses multivariate statistics (principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis) to identify E. coli phenotypic changes over a 180 min post-treatment time-course. A toxicity study showed extreme variability among the reduction in culture growth, with 1-butanol showing the greatest toxicity and 1,4-butanediol showing relatively no toxicity. Chemometric fingerprinting showed distinct phenotype clusters according to the type of alcohol: (i) 1-butanol and 2-butanol (straight chain alcohols); (ii) isobutanol and tert-butanol (branched chain alcohols); and (iii) control and 1,4-butanediol (no terminal alkyl end) treated cells. While the isobutanol and tert-butanol treated cells led to similar phenotypic responses, isobutanol was significantly more toxic. In addition, the phenotypic response was found to take place largely within 60 min of culture treatment; however, significant responses (especially for 1,4-butanediol) were still occurring at 180 min post-treatment. The methodology presented here identified different phenotypic responses to seemingly similar 4-carbon alcohols and can be used to study phenotypic responses of virtually any cell type under any set of environmental conditions or genetic manipulations. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Zu, T.N.K.; Athamneh, A.I.M.; Senger, R.S. Characterizing the Phenotypic Responses of Escherichia coli to Multiple 4-Carbon Alcohols with Raman Spectroscopy. Fermentation 2016, 2, 3.
Zu TNK, Athamneh AIM, Senger RS. Characterizing the Phenotypic Responses of Escherichia coli to Multiple 4-Carbon Alcohols with Raman Spectroscopy. Fermentation. 2016; 2(1):3.Chicago/Turabian Style
Zu, Theresah N.K.; Athamneh, Ahmad I.M.; Senger, Ryan S. 2016. "Characterizing the Phenotypic Responses of Escherichia coli to Multiple 4-Carbon Alcohols with Raman Spectroscopy." Fermentation 2, no. 1: 3.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.