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Article

Tissue Adhesive, Conductive, and Injectable Cellulose Hydrogel Ink for On-Skin Direct Writing of Electronics

by 1, 2, 2,3,4,* and 1,4,5,*
1
Department of Intelligent Precision Healthcare Convergence, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
3
Department of Superintelligence Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
4
Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon 16419, Korea
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christian Demitri, Lorenzo Bonetti and Laura Riva
Gels 2022, 8(6), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8060336
Received: 25 April 2022 / Revised: 17 May 2022 / Accepted: 24 May 2022 / Published: 30 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cellulose-Based Hydrogels)
Flexible and soft bioelectronics used on skin tissue have attracted attention for the monitoring of human health. In addition to typical metal-based rigid electronics, soft polymeric materials, particularly conductive hydrogels, have been actively developed to fabricate biocompatible electrical circuits with a mechanical modulus similar to biological tissues. Although such conductive hydrogels can be wearable or implantable in vivo without any tissue damage, there are still challenges to directly writing complex circuits on the skin due to its low tissue adhesion and heterogeneous mechanical properties. Herein, we report cellulose-based conductive hydrogel inks exhibiting strong tissue adhesion and injectability for further on-skin direct printing. The hydrogels consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose, tannic acid, and metal ions (e.g., HAuCl4) were crosslinked via multiple hydrogen bonds between the cellulose backbone and tannic acid and metal-phenol coordinate network. Owing to this reversible non-covalent crosslinking, the hydrogels showed self-healing properties and reversible conductivity under cyclic strain from 0 to 400%, as well as printability on the skin tissue. In particular, the on-skin electronic circuit printed using the hydrogel ink maintained a continuous electrical flow under skin deformation, such as bending and twisting, and at high relative humidity of 90%. These printable and conductive hydrogels are promising for implementing structurally complicated bioelectronics and wearable textiles. View Full-Text
Keywords: carboxymethylcellulose; tannic acid; conductive hydrogel; injectable hydrogel; adhesive hydrogel; 3D printing; direct printing carboxymethylcellulose; tannic acid; conductive hydrogel; injectable hydrogel; adhesive hydrogel; 3D printing; direct printing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, S.; Kim, Y.; Son, D.; Shin, M. Tissue Adhesive, Conductive, and Injectable Cellulose Hydrogel Ink for On-Skin Direct Writing of Electronics. Gels 2022, 8, 336. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8060336

AMA Style

Jin S, Kim Y, Son D, Shin M. Tissue Adhesive, Conductive, and Injectable Cellulose Hydrogel Ink for On-Skin Direct Writing of Electronics. Gels. 2022; 8(6):336. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8060336

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jin, Subin, Yewon Kim, Donghee Son, and Mikyung Shin. 2022. "Tissue Adhesive, Conductive, and Injectable Cellulose Hydrogel Ink for On-Skin Direct Writing of Electronics" Gels 8, no. 6: 336. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8060336

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