Flexible and soft bioelectronics used on skin tissue have attracted attention for the monitoring of human health. In addition to typical metal-based rigid electronics, soft polymeric materials, particularly conductive hydrogels, have been actively developed to fabricate biocompatible electrical circuits with a mechanical modulus similar to biological tissues. Although such conductive hydrogels can be wearable or implantable in vivo without any tissue damage, there are still challenges to directly writing complex circuits on the skin due to its low tissue adhesion and heterogeneous mechanical properties. Herein, we report cellulose-based conductive hydrogel inks exhibiting strong tissue adhesion and injectability for further on-skin direct printing. The hydrogels consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose, tannic acid, and metal ions (e.g., HAuCl4
) were crosslinked via multiple hydrogen bonds between the cellulose backbone and tannic acid and metal-phenol coordinate network. Owing to this reversible non-covalent crosslinking, the hydrogels showed self-healing properties and reversible conductivity under cyclic strain from 0 to 400%, as well as printability on the skin tissue. In particular, the on-skin electronic circuit printed using the hydrogel ink maintained a continuous electrical flow under skin deformation, such as bending and twisting, and at high relative humidity of 90%. These printable and conductive hydrogels are promising for implementing structurally complicated bioelectronics and wearable textiles.
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