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Assembly of Conducting Polymer and Biohydrogel for the Release and Real-Time Monitoring of Vitamin K3

1
Departament d’Enginyeria Química, EEBE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C/Eduard Maristany, 10-14, Ed. I2, 08019, Barcelona, Spain
2
Barcelona Research Center for Multiscale Science and Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C/Eduard Maristany, 10-14, Ed. C, 08019, Barcelona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gels from the Self-Assembling of Peptide-Based Compounds)
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Abstract

In this work, we report the design and fabrication of a dual-function integrated system to monitor, in real time, the release of previously loaded 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (MeNQ), also named vitamin K3. The newly developed system consists of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanoparticles, which were embedded into a poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) biohydrogel during the gelling reaction between the biopolymer chains and the cross-linker, cystamine. After this, agglomerates of PEDOT nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed inside the biohydrogel were used as polymerization nuclei for the in situ anodic synthesis of poly(hydroxymethyl-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in aqueous solution. After characterization of the resulting flexible electrode composites, their ability to load and release MeNQ was proven and monitored. Specifically, loaded MeNQ molecules, which organized in shells around PEDOT nanoparticles agglomerates when the drug was simply added to the initial gelling solution, were progressively released to a physiological medium. The latter process was successfully monitored using an electrode composite through differential pulse voltammetry. The fabrication of electroactive flexible biohydrogels for real-time release monitoring opens new opportunities for theranostic therapeutic approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: conducting polymer; electroactive hydrogel; flexible electrode; menadione; poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene); poly-γ-glutamic acid conducting polymer; electroactive hydrogel; flexible electrode; menadione; poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene); poly-γ-glutamic acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Molina, B.G.; Domínguez, E.; Armelin, E.; Alemán, C. Assembly of Conducting Polymer and Biohydrogel for the Release and Real-Time Monitoring of Vitamin K3. Gels 2018, 4, 86.

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