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Review

Properties of Water Bound in Hydrogels

1
Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, 03164 Kyiv, Ukraine
2
School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, BN2 4GJ Brighton, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Water in the Properties of Hydrogels)
In this review, the importance of water in hydrogel (HG) properties and structure is analyzed. A variety of methods such as 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, thermally stimulated depolarization current, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, rheometry, diffusion, adsorption, infrared spectroscopy are used to study water in HG. The state of HG water is rather non-uniform. According to thermodynamic features of water in HG, some of it is non-freezing and strongly bound, another fraction is freezing and weakly bound, and the third fraction is non-bound, free water freezing at 0 °C. According to structural features of water in HG, it can be divided into two fractions with strongly associated and weakly associated waters. The properties of the water in HG depend also on the amounts and types of solutes, pH, salinity, structural features of HG functionalities. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogels; cryogels; strongly and weakly bound water; strongly and weakly associated water; interfacial phenomena; freezing-melting point depression hydrogels; cryogels; strongly and weakly bound water; strongly and weakly associated water; interfacial phenomena; freezing-melting point depression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gun’ko, V.M.; Savina, I.N.; Mikhalovsky, S.V. Properties of Water Bound in Hydrogels. Gels 2017, 3, 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels3040037

AMA Style

Gun’ko VM, Savina IN, Mikhalovsky SV. Properties of Water Bound in Hydrogels. Gels. 2017; 3(4):37. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels3040037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gun’ko, Vladimir M., Irina N. Savina, and Sergey V. Mikhalovsky. 2017. "Properties of Water Bound in Hydrogels" Gels 3, no. 4: 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels3040037

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