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Review

Histoplasmosis Diagnosed in Europe and Israel: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature from 2005 to 2020

1
Luigi Sacco Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Università di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
2
III Division of Infectious Diseases, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, 20157 Milan, Italy
3
Pathology Unit, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, 20157 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nathan C. Bahr and Mathieu Nacher
J. Fungi 2021, 7(6), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060481
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histoplasma and Histoplasmosis 2020)
Human histoplasmosis is a mycosis caused by two distinct varieties of a dimorphic fungus: Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. In Europe, it is usually imported by migrants and travellers, although there have been some autochthonous cases, especially in Italy; however, most European physicians are unfamiliar with its clinical and pathological picture, particularly among immunocompromised patients without HIV infection. This systematic review of all the cases of histoplasmosis reported in Europe and Israel between 2005 and 2020 identified 728 cases diagnosed in 17 European countries and Israel described in 133 articles. The vast majority were imported (mainly from Central and South America), but there were also seven autochthonous cases (six in Europe and one in Israel). The patients were prevalently males (60.4%), and their ages ranged from 2 to 86 years. The time between leaving an endemic region and the diagnosis of histoplasmosis varied from a few weeks to more than 40 years. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis was the most frequent clinical picture among people living with HIV infection (89.5%) or a different immunocompromising condition (57.1%), but it was also recorded in 6.2% of immunocompetent patients. Twenty-eight cases were caused by Histoplasma duboisii. Immunocompromised patients without HIV infection had the worst outcomes, with a mortality rate of 32%. View Full-Text
Keywords: histoplasmosis; Histoplasma capsulatum; Histoplasma duboisii; HIV; immunocompromise; travellers; progressive disseminated histoplasmosis; diagnosis histoplasmosis; Histoplasma capsulatum; Histoplasma duboisii; HIV; immunocompromise; travellers; progressive disseminated histoplasmosis; diagnosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Antinori, S.; Giacomelli, A.; Corbellino, M.; Torre, A.; Schiuma, M.; Casalini, G.; Parravicini, C.; Milazzo, L.; Gervasoni, C.; Ridolfo, A.L. Histoplasmosis Diagnosed in Europe and Israel: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature from 2005 to 2020. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 481. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060481

AMA Style

Antinori S, Giacomelli A, Corbellino M, Torre A, Schiuma M, Casalini G, Parravicini C, Milazzo L, Gervasoni C, Ridolfo AL. Histoplasmosis Diagnosed in Europe and Israel: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature from 2005 to 2020. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(6):481. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060481

Chicago/Turabian Style

Antinori, Spinello, Andrea Giacomelli, Mario Corbellino, Alessandro Torre, Marco Schiuma, Giacomo Casalini, Carlo Parravicini, Laura Milazzo, Cristina Gervasoni, and Anna L. Ridolfo 2021. "Histoplasmosis Diagnosed in Europe and Israel: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature from 2005 to 2020" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 6: 481. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060481

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