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Review

Reinforcing the Immunocompromised Host Defense against Fungi: Progress beyond the Current State of the Art

1
Hematology Department-Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Unit, Gene and Cell Therapy Center, “George Papanikolaou” Hospital, 57010 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joseph M. Bliss
J. Fungi 2021, 7(6), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060451
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 31 May 2021 / Accepted: 2 June 2021 / Published: 6 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Defense against Fungi)
Despite the availability of a variety of antifungal drugs, opportunistic fungal infections still remain life-threatening for immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation or solid organ transplantation. Suboptimal efficacy, toxicity, development of resistant variants and recurrent episodes are limitations associated with current antifungal drug therapy. Adjunctive immunotherapies reinforcing the host defense against fungi and aiding in clearance of opportunistic pathogens are continuously gaining ground in this battle. Here, we review alternative approaches for the management of fungal infections going beyond the state of the art and placing an emphasis on fungus-specific T cell immunotherapy. Harnessing the power of T cells in the form of adoptive immunotherapy represents the strenuous protagonist of the current immunotherapeutic approaches towards combating invasive fungal infections. The progress that has been made over the last years in this field and remaining challenges as well, will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal infections; fungus-specific T cells; T cell immunotherapy fungal infections; fungus-specific T cells; T cell immunotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karavalakis, G.; Yannaki, E.; Papadopoulou, A. Reinforcing the Immunocompromised Host Defense against Fungi: Progress beyond the Current State of the Art. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 451. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060451

AMA Style

Karavalakis G, Yannaki E, Papadopoulou A. Reinforcing the Immunocompromised Host Defense against Fungi: Progress beyond the Current State of the Art. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(6):451. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060451

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karavalakis, Georgios, Evangelia Yannaki, and Anastasia Papadopoulou. 2021. "Reinforcing the Immunocompromised Host Defense against Fungi: Progress beyond the Current State of the Art" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 6: 451. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060451

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