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Article

Cellular and Molecular Response of Macrophages THP-1 during Co-Culture with Inactive Trichophyton rubrum Conidia

1
Biotechnology Unit, University of Ribeirão Preto-UNAERP, Av. Costábile Romano, 2201, Ribeirão Preto CEP 14096-900, São Paulo, Brazil
2
National Institute of Science and Technology in Stem Cell and Cell Therapy, Center for Cell-Based Therapy, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto CEP 14049-900, São Paulo, Brazil
3
Department of Genetics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto CEP 14049-900, Brazil
4
Medicine School, University of Ribeirão Preto-UNAERP, Av. Costábile Romano, 2201, Ribeirão Preto CEP 14096-900, São Paulo, Brazil
5
Department of Genetics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, Center for Integrative System Biology–CISBi-NAP/USP, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto CEP 14049-900, São Paulo, Brazil
6
Center for Medical Genomics, University Hospital of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto CEP 14049-900, São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040363
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 28 November 2020 / Accepted: 30 November 2020 / Published: 12 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antifungal Immunity and Fungal Vaccine Development)
Trichophyton rubrum is causing an increasing number of invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. The fungal invasive infectious process is complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms during the interaction of macrophages and T. rubrum. For this purpose, we used a co-culture of previously germinated and heat-inactivated T. rubrum conidia placed in contact with human macrophages cell line THP-1 for 24 h. This interaction led to a higher level of release of interleukins IL-6, IL-2, nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, demonstrating the cellular defense by macrophages against dead fungal elements. Cell viability assays showed that 70% of macrophages remained viable during co-culture. Human microRNA expression is involved in fungal infection and may modulate the immune response. Thus, the macrophage expression profile of microRNAs during co-culture revealed the modulation of 83 microRNAs, with repression of 33 microRNAs and induction of 50 microRNAs. These data were analyzed using bioinformatics analysis programs and the modulation of the expression of some microRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis showed that the target genes of these microRNAs are related to the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, apoptosis, drug resistance, and cell proliferation. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep dermatophytosis; cytokines; microRNA NGS deep dermatophytosis; cytokines; microRNA NGS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gonzalez Segura, G.; Cantelli, B.A.; Peronni, K.; Rodrigo Sanches, P.; Komoto, T.T.; Rizzi, E.; Beleboni, R.O.; da Silva Junior, W.A.; Martinez-Rossi, N.M.; Marins, M.; Fachin, A.L. Cellular and Molecular Response of Macrophages THP-1 during Co-Culture with Inactive Trichophyton rubrum Conidia. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 363. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040363

AMA Style

Gonzalez Segura G, Cantelli BA, Peronni K, Rodrigo Sanches P, Komoto TT, Rizzi E, Beleboni RO, da Silva Junior WA, Martinez-Rossi NM, Marins M, Fachin AL. Cellular and Molecular Response of Macrophages THP-1 during Co-Culture with Inactive Trichophyton rubrum Conidia. Journal of Fungi. 2020; 6(4):363. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040363

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gonzalez Segura, Gabriela, Bruna Aline Cantelli, Kamila Peronni, Pablo Rodrigo Sanches, Tatiana Takahasi Komoto, Elen Rizzi, Rene Oliveira Beleboni, Wilson Araújo da Silva Junior, Nilce Maria Martinez-Rossi, Mozart Marins, and Ana Lúcia Fachin. 2020. "Cellular and Molecular Response of Macrophages THP-1 during Co-Culture with Inactive Trichophyton rubrum Conidia" Journal of Fungi 6, no. 4: 363. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040363

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