Next Article in Journal
Immunoproteomic Analysis Reveals Novel Candidate Antigens for the Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis Due to Paracoccidioides lutzii
Next Article in Special Issue
Taxonomy, Diversity and Cultivation of the Oudemansielloid/Xeruloid Taxa Hymenopellis, Mucidula, Oudemansiella, and Xerula with Respect to Their Bioactivities: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Hog1 Controls Lipids Homeostasis Upon Osmotic Stress in Candida albicans
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of Calcium Silicate on the Chemical Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida (Jacq.) P. Kumm
Review

β-Glucan Metabolic and Immunomodulatory Properties and Potential for Clinical Application

1
Bioscience Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, N37 HD68 Athlone, Ireland
2
Lung Biology Group, Regenerative Medicine Institute at CURAM Centre for Medical Devices, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, H91 CF50 Galway, Ireland
3
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Galway, H91 YR71 Galway, Ireland
4
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy
5
Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, N37 HD68 Athlone, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors have equally contributed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040356
Received: 25 November 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushrooms—Mycotherapy and Mycochemistry)
β-glucans are complex polysaccharides that are found in several plants and foods, including mushrooms. β-glucans display an array of potentially therapeutic properties. β-glucans have metabolic and gastro-intestinal effects, modulating the gut microbiome, altering lipid and glucose metabolism, reducing cholesterol, leading to their investigation as potential therapies for metabolic syndrome, obesity and diet regulation, gastrointestinal conditions such as irritable bowel, and to reduce cardiovascular and diabetes risk. β-glucans also have immune-modulating effects, leading to their investigation as adjuvant agents for cancers (solid and haematological malignancies), for immune-mediated conditions (e.g., allergic rhinitis, respiratory infections), and to enhance wound healing. The therapeutic potential of β-glucans is evidenced by the fact that two glucan isolates were licensed as drugs in Japan as immune-adjuvant therapy for cancer in 1980. Significant challenges exist to further clinical testing and translation of β-glucans. The diverse range of conditions for which β-glucans are in clinical testing underlines the incomplete understanding of the diverse mechanisms of action of β-glucans, a key knowledge gap. Furthermore, important differences appear to exist in the effects of apparently similar β-glucan preparations, which may be due to differences in sources and extraction procedures, another poorly understood issue. This review will describe the biology, potential mechanisms of action and key therapeutic targets being investigated in clinical trials of β-glucans and identify and discuss the key challenges to successful translation of this intriguing potential therapeutic. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-glucan; clinical trials; biomedicine; immunomodulation; metabolism β-glucan; clinical trials; biomedicine; immunomodulation; metabolism
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Murphy, E.J.; Rezoagli, E.; Major, I.; Rowan, N.J.; Laffey, J.G. β-Glucan Metabolic and Immunomodulatory Properties and Potential for Clinical Application. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 356. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040356

AMA Style

Murphy EJ, Rezoagli E, Major I, Rowan NJ, Laffey JG. β-Glucan Metabolic and Immunomodulatory Properties and Potential for Clinical Application. Journal of Fungi. 2020; 6(4):356. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murphy, Emma J., Emanuele Rezoagli, Ian Major, Neil J. Rowan, and John G. Laffey 2020. "β-Glucan Metabolic and Immunomodulatory Properties and Potential for Clinical Application" Journal of Fungi 6, no. 4: 356. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040356

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop