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Open AccessArticle

Novel Colloidal Nanocarrier of Cetylpyridinium Chloride: Antifungal Activities on Candida Species and Cytotoxic Potential on Murine Fibroblasts

1
Department of Preventive and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araçatuba SP 16015-050, Brazil
2
Graduate Program in Dentistry (GPD—Master’s Degree), University of Western São Paulo (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente SP 19050-920, Brazil
3
School of Dentistry, Presidente Prudente, University of Western São Paulo (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente SP 19050-920, Brazil
4
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos SP 13565-905, Brazil
5
Department of Basic Sciences, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araçatuba SP 16015-050, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040218
Received: 4 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Therapeutic Approaches of Candida Infections)
Nanocarriers have been used as alternative tools to overcome the resistance of Candida species to conventional treatments. This study prepared a nanocarrier of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) using iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) conjugated with chitosan (CS), and assessed its antifungal and cytotoxic effects. CPC was immobilized on CS-coated IONPs, and the nanocarrier was physico-chemically characterized. Antifungal effects were determined on planktonic cells of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata (by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays) and on single- and dual-species biofilms of these strains (by quantification of cultivable cells, total biomass and metabolic activity). Murine fibroblasts were exposed to different concentrations of the nanocarrier, and the cytotoxic effect was evaluated by MTT reduction assay. Characterization methods confirmed the presence of a nanocarrier smaller than 313 nm. IONPs-CS-CPC and free CPC showed the same MIC values (0.78 µg mL−1). CPC-containing nanocarrier at 78 µg mL−1 significantly reduced the number of cultivable cells for all biofilms, surpassing the effect promoted by free CPC. For total biomass, metabolic activity, and cytotoxic effects, the nanocarrier and free CPC produced statistically similar outcomes. In conclusion, the IONPs-CS-CPC nanocarrier was more effective than CPC in reducing the cultivable cells of Candida biofilms without increasing the cytotoxic effects of CPC, and may be a useful tool for the treatment of oral fungal infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifungal agents; biofilms; Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; cetylpyridinium chloride; chitosan; iron oxide nanoparticles antifungal agents; biofilms; Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; cetylpyridinium chloride; chitosan; iron oxide nanoparticles
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Araujo, H.C.; Arias, L.S.; Caldeirão, A.C.M.; Assumpção, L.C.F.; Morceli, M.G.; de Souza Neto, F.N.; de Camargo, E.R.; Oliveira, S.H.P.; Pessan, J.P.; Monteiro, D.R. Novel Colloidal Nanocarrier of Cetylpyridinium Chloride: Antifungal Activities on Candida Species and Cytotoxic Potential on Murine Fibroblasts. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 218.

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