Objectives: to analyze the results of molecular methods applying for the diagnosis of mucormycosis in hematologic patients based on a literature review. Data sources: A systematic search in databases PubMed, Google Scholar for August 2019. Review eligibility criteria: original articles published in English, studies of molecular methods for the diagnosis of mucormycosis in hematologic patients. Results. We analyzed the research data from 116 hematological patients with mucormycosis, including children (6%). Patients with localized forms of mucormycosis prevailed (72%), and lung involvement was diagnosed in 58% of these cases. For molecular verification of the causative agent of mucormycosis, blood serum was most often used, less commonly postoperative and autopsy material, biopsy specimens, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples and bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural fluid and sputum. The sensitivity of molecular diagnostics of mucormycosis in a cohort of hematological patients was 88.2%. Conclusion. The use of molecular techniques along with standard mycological methods will improve the diagnostics of mucormycosis in hematologic patients. However, prospective studies of the effectiveness of molecular methods for the diagnosis of mucormycosis of various etiologies in hematological patients, including children, using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are needed.
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