Next Article in Journal
Recent Advances in the Use of Galleria mellonella Model to Study Immune Responses against Human Pathogens
Next Article in Special Issue
Special Issue: Treatments for Fungal Infections
Previous Article in Journal
A Ketoconazole Susceptibility Test for Malassezia pachydermatis Using Modified Leeming–Notman Agar
Previous Article in Special Issue
Therapy of Non-Dermatophytic Mycoses in Animals
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 127;

Therapy and Management of Pneumocystis jirovecii Infection

Public Health Wales Microbiology Cardiff, UHW, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatments for Fungal Infections)
Full-Text   |   PDF [697 KB, uploaded 2 January 2019]   |  


The rates of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) are increasing in the HIV-negative susceptible population. Guidance for the prophylaxis and treatment of PcP in HIV, haematology, and solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients is available, although for many other populations (e.g., auto-immune disorders) there remains an urgent need for recommendations. The main drug for both prophylaxis and treatment of PcP is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, but resistance to this therapy is emerging, placing further emphasis on the need to make a mycological diagnosis using molecular based methods. Outbreaks in SOT recipients, particularly renal transplants, are increasingly described, and likely caused by human-to-human spread, highlighting the need for efficient infection control policies and sensitive diagnostic assays. Widespread prophylaxis is the best measure to gain control of outbreak situations. This review will summarize diagnostic options, cover prophylactic and therapeutic management in the main at risk populations, while also covering aspects of managing resistant disease, outbreak situations, and paediatric PcP. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pneumocystis pneumonia; PcP therapy; PcP diagnosis Pneumocystis pneumonia; PcP therapy; PcP diagnosis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

White, P.L.; Price, J.S.; Backx, M. Therapy and Management of Pneumocystis jirovecii Infection. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 127.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Fungi EISSN 2309-608X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top