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J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040121

An Update on the Roles of Non-albicans Candida Species in Vulvovaginitis

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Gulu University, Gulu P.O. Box 166, Uganda
3
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract

Candida species are one of the commonest causes of vaginitis in healthy women of reproductive age. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is characterized by vulvovaginal itching, redness and discharge. Candida albicans, which is a common genito-urinary tract commensal, has been the prominent species and remains the most common fungal agent isolated from clinical samples of patients diagnosed with VVC. In recent times, however, there has been a notable shift in the etiology of candidiasis with non-albicans Candida (NAC) species gaining prominence. The NAC species now account for approximately 10% to as high as 45% of VVC cases in some studies. This is associated with treatment challenges and a slightly different clinical picture. NAC species vaginitis is milder in presentation, often occur in patients with underlying chronic medical conditions and symptoms tend to be more recurrent or chronic compared with C. albicans vaginitis. C. glabrata is the most common cause of NAC-VVC. C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii are the other commonly implicated species. Treatment failure is common in NAC-VVC, since some of these species are intrinsically resistant or show low susceptibilities to commonly used antifungal agents. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of NAC vulvovaginitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: vulvovaginal candidiasis; Candida glabrata; genital infection; vaginal candidosis; antifungal treatment vulvovaginal candidiasis; Candida glabrata; genital infection; vaginal candidosis; antifungal treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Makanjuola, O.; Bongomin, F.; Fayemiwo, S.A. An Update on the Roles of Non-albicans Candida Species in Vulvovaginitis. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 121.

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