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J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 115;

Advances in the Treatment of Mycoses in Pediatric Patients

Infectious Diseases Unit, 3rd Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University School of Health Sciences, Konstantinoupoleos 49, 54642 Thessaloniki, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatments for Fungal Infections)
PDF [382 KB, uploaded 14 October 2018]


The main indications for antifungal drug administration in pediatrics are reviewed as well as an update of the data of antifungal agents and antifungal policies performed. Specifically, antifungal therapy in three main areas is updated as follows: (a) Prophylaxis of premature neonates against invasive candidiasis; (b) management of candidemia and meningoencephalitis in neonates; and (c) prophylaxis, empiric therapy, and targeted antifungal therapy in children with primary or secondary immunodeficiencies. Fluconazole remains the most frequent antifungal prophylactic agent given to high-risk neonates and children. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistance, particularly in non-albicans Candida species, should be considered during preventive or empiric therapy. In very-low birth-weight neonates, although fluconazole is used as antifungal prophylaxis in neonatal intensive care units (NICU’s) with relatively high incidence of invasive candidiasis (IC), its role is under continuous debate. Amphotericin B, primarily in its liposomal formulation, remains the mainstay of therapy for treating neonatal and pediatric yeast and mold infections. Voriconazole is indicated for mold infections except for mucormycosis in children >2 years. Newer triazoles-such as posaconazole and isavuconazole-as well as echinocandins, are either licensed or under study for first-line or salvage therapy, whereas combination therapy is kept for refractory cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: invasive fungal infections; neonates; antifungal agents; children invasive fungal infections; neonates; antifungal agents; children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Iosifidis, E.; Papachristou, S.; Roilides, E. Advances in the Treatment of Mycoses in Pediatric Patients. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 115.

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