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The Multifaceted Role of T-Helper Responses in Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

1
Department of Experimental Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2
Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Eijkman No. 38, Bandung 40161, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2017, 3(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3040055
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mucosal Fungal Infections)
The ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus rarely causes infections in immunocompetent individuals. A healthy functional innate immune system plays a crucial role in preventing Aspergillus-infection. This pivotal role for the innate immune system makes it a main research focus in studying the pathogenesis of aspergillosis. Although sometimes overshadowed by the innate immune response, the adaptive immune response, and in particular T-helper responses, also represents a key player in host defense against Aspergillus. Virtually all T-helper subsets have been described to play a role during aspergillosis, with the Th1 response being crucial for fungal clearance. However; morbidity and mortality of aspergillosis can also be partly attributed to detrimental immune responses resulting from adaptive immune activation. Th2 responses benefit fungal persistence; and are the foundation of allergic forms of aspergillosis. The Th17 response has two sides; although crucial for granulocyte recruitment, it can be involved in detrimental immunopathology. Regulatory T-cells, the endogenous regulators of inflammatory responses, play a key role in controlling detrimental inflammatory responses during aspergillosis. The current knowledge of the adaptive immune response against A. fumigatus is summarized in this review. A better understanding on how T-helper responses facilitate clearance of Aspergillus-infection and control inflammation can be the fundamental basis for understanding the pathogenesis of aspergillosis and for the development of novel host-directed therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: aspergillosis; T-helper cells; adaptive immune response; immunopathology aspergillosis; T-helper cells; adaptive immune response; immunopathology
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Dewi, I.M.W.; Van de Veerdonk, F.L.; Gresnigt, M.S. The Multifaceted Role of T-Helper Responses in Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 55.

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