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Do Adult Forms of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Exist in Children and Adolescents?
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State-of-the-Art Adult Chronic Rhinosinusitis Microbiome: Perspective for Future Studies in Pediatrics

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Albany Medical College, 176 Washington Avenue Extension, Suite 102, Albany, NY 12203, USA
Sinusitis 2018, 3(1), 1;
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Sinusitis)
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent disease that causes persistent mucosal inflammation and is associated with bacterial infection, which is thought to play a role in the inflammatory process. Microbiome analysis provides insight to host–microbial interactions. Disturbances in the host and commensal bacteria interaction may lead to CRS. Culture-based methods are useful to isolate some microorganisms but are unable to grow a majority of the bacteria. A review of the literature shows that several recent studies attempted to overcome this issue by using molecular techniques, such as microbial RNA sequencing, to describe the CRS microbiome. All of these studies were performed in adults, with no comparative studies reported in the pediatric population. Similar studies, utilizing molecular techniques, are needed to better understand the mechanism of CRS in children. Because valuable data from these adult studies may help to bridge the gap in our knowledge of the microbiome in pediatric CRS, we present an overview of the methodology and results behind the current microbiomic approach to adult CRS to set the stage for its use in the study of CRS in children. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis; molecular techniques microbiome; pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis; molecular techniques
MDPI and ACS Style

Pasha, M.A. State-of-the-Art Adult Chronic Rhinosinusitis Microbiome: Perspective for Future Studies in Pediatrics. Sinusitis 2018, 3, 1.

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