Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent disease that causes persistent mucosal inflammation and is associated with bacterial infection, which is thought to play a role in the inflammatory process. Microbiome analysis provides insight to host–microbial interactions. Disturbances in the host and commensal bacteria interaction may lead to CRS. Culture-based methods are useful to isolate some microorganisms but are unable to grow a majority of the bacteria. A review of the literature shows that several recent studies attempted to overcome this issue by using molecular techniques, such as microbial RNA sequencing, to describe the CRS microbiome. All of these studies were performed in adults, with no comparative studies reported in the pediatric population. Similar studies, utilizing molecular techniques, are needed to better understand the mechanism of CRS in children. Because valuable data from these adult studies may help to bridge the gap in our knowledge of the microbiome in pediatric CRS, we present an overview of the methodology and results behind the current microbiomic approach to adult CRS to set the stage for its use in the study of CRS in children.
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