Next Article in Journal
Targeted Gene Delivery through the Respiratory System: Rationale for Intratracheal Gene Transfer
Previous Article in Journal
Vortex Dynamics in Trabeculated Embryonic Ventricles
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Temporal Change of Extracellular Matrix during Vein Arterialization Remodeling in Rats

Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology/LIM 13, Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo 05403-000, Brazil
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales 170003, Colombia.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(1), 7;
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
PDF [3757 KB, uploaded 2 February 2019]


The global expression profile of the arterialized rat jugular vein was established to identify candidate genes and cellular pathways underlying the remodeling process. The arterialized jugular vein was analyzed on days 3 and 28 post-surgery and compared with the normal jugular vein and carotid artery. A gene array platform detected 9846 genes in all samples. A heatmap analysis uncovered patterns of gene expression showing that the arterialized vein underwent a partial transition from vein to artery from day 3 to 28 post-surgery. The same pattern was verified for 1845 key differentially expressed genes by performing a pairwise comparison of the jugular vein with the other groups. Interestingly, hierarchical clustering of 60 genes with altered expression on day 3 and day 28 displayed an expression pattern similar to that of the carotid artery. Enrichment analysis results and the network relationship among genes modulated during vein arterialization showed that collagen might play a role in the early remodeling process. Indeed, the total collagen content was increased, with the augmented expression of collagen I, collagen IV, and collagen V in arterialized veins. Additionally, there was an increase in the expression of versican and Thy-1 and a decrease in the expression of biglycan and β1-integrin. Overall, we provide evidence that vein arterialization remodeling is accompanied by consistent patterns of gene expression and that collagen may be an essential element underlying extracellular matrix changes that support the increased vascular wall stress of the new hemodynamic environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: vein arterialization; microarray; extracellular matrix; collagens vein arterialization; microarray; extracellular matrix; collagens

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Miyakawa, A.A.; Bassaneze, V.; Duarte, N.E.; Girão-Silva, T.; Bizerra, M.N.; Campos, J.C.; Krieger, J.E. Temporal Change of Extracellular Matrix during Vein Arterialization Remodeling in Rats. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6, 7.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top