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What Is the Heart? Anatomy, Function, Pathophysiology, and Misconceptions

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Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Room 62-258 CHS, P.O. Box 951741, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1741, USA
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Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
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Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd. PACT, Suite 800, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
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UC Clinical Centre of Serbia, Clinic for Cardiac Surgery, 8th Kosta Todorovic St., 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5020033
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
Cardiac dynamics are traditionally linked to a left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum morphology, a topography that differs from the heart’s five-century-old anatomic description of containing a helix and circumferential wrap architectural configuration. Torrent Guasp’s helical ventricular myocardial band (HVMB) defines this anatomy and its structure, and explains why the heart’s six dynamic actions of narrowing, shortening, lengthening, widening, twisting, and uncoiling happen. The described structural findings will raise questions about deductions guiding “accepted cardiac mechanics”, and their functional aspects will challenge and overturn them. These suppositions include the LV, RV, and septum description, timing of mitral valve opening, isovolumic relaxation period, reasons for torsion/twisting, untwisting, reasons for longitudinal and circumferential strain, echocardiographic sub segmentation, resynchronization, RV function dynamics, diastolic dysfunction’s cause, and unrecognized septum impairment. Torrent Guasp’s revolutionary contributions may alter future understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: conventional heart anatomy; helical ventricular myocardial band; mitral valve opening; isovolumic relaxation time; RV function; diastolic dysfunction conventional heart anatomy; helical ventricular myocardial band; mitral valve opening; isovolumic relaxation time; RV function; diastolic dysfunction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Buckberg, G.D.; Nanda, N.C.; Nguyen, C.; Kocica, M.J. What Is the Heart? Anatomy, Function, Pathophysiology, and Misconceptions. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5, 33.

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