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Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 25;

Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Occupied Vacuole Interactions with the Host Cell Cytoskeleton

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ulrike Munderloh
Received: 9 April 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies in Tick-Borne Diseases in Animals and Humans)
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Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. The A. phagocytophium-occupied vacuole (ApV) is a critical host-pathogen interface. Here, we report that the intermediate filaments, keratin and vimentin, assemble on the ApV early and remain associated with the ApV throughout infection. Microtubules localize to the ApV to a lesser extent. Vimentin, keratin-8, and keratin-18 but not tubulin expression is upregulated in A. phagocytophilum infected cells. SUMO-2/3 but not SUMO-1 colocalizes with vimentin filaments that surround ApVs. PolySUMOylation of vimentin by SUMO-2/3 but not SUMO-1 decreases vimentin solubility. Consistent with this, more vimentin exists in an insoluble state in A. phagocytophilum infected cells than in uninfected cells. Knocking down the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, Ubc9, abrogates vimentin assembly at the ApV but has no effect on the bacterial load. Bacterial protein synthesis is dispensable for maintaining vimentin and SUMO-2/3 at the ApV. Withaferin A, which inhibits soluble vimentin, reduces vimentin recruitment to the ApV, optimal ApV formation, and the bacterial load when administered prior to infection but is ineffective once vimentin has assembled on the ApV. Thus, A. phagocytophilum modulates cytoskeletal component expression and co-opts polySUMOylated vimentin to aid construction of its vacuolar niche and promote optimal survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anaplasma phagocytophilum; vacuole-adapted bacteria; vimentin; SUMOylation; cytoskeleton Anaplasma phagocytophilum; vacuole-adapted bacteria; vimentin; SUMOylation; cytoskeleton

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Truchan, H.K.; Cockburn, C.L.; May, L.J.; VieBrock, L.; Carlyon, J.A. Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Occupied Vacuole Interactions with the Host Cell Cytoskeleton. Vet. Sci. 2016, 3, 25.

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