Next Article in Journal
Collection of Bacterial Community Associated with Size Fractionated Aerosols from Kuwait
Previous Article in Journal
Bicycle Mobility Data: Current Use and Future Potential. An International Survey of Domain Professionals
Order Article Reprints
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:
Data Descriptor

Determination of Specific IgG to Identify Possible Food Intolerance in Athletes Using ELISA

Biobanking Group, Branch of IBMC “Scientific and Education Center”, 109028 Moscow, Russia
State Research Center Burnasyan of the Federal Medical Biophysical Centre of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia, 123098 Moscow, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Data 2021, 6(11), 122;
Received: 21 October 2021 / Revised: 18 November 2021 / Accepted: 19 November 2021 / Published: 21 November 2021


Nutrition is considered one of the foundations of athletic performance, and post-workout nutritional recommendations are fundamental to the effectiveness of the recovery and adaptive processes. Therefore, at present, new directions in dietetics are being formed, focused on the creation of personalized diets. To identify the probable risk of somatic and allergic reactions upon contact with food antigens, we used the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitative determination of IgG antibodies in the blood plasma of athletes against protein–peptide antigens accommodated in food. The study enrolled 40 athletes of boating and fighting sport disciplines. We found that the majority of the studied participants were characterized by an elevated IgG level against one or two food allergens (barley, almond, strawberry, etc.). Comparative analysis of the semiquantitative levels of IgG antibodies in athletes engaged in boating and fighting did not reveal significant differences between these groups. As a result, foods that are likely to cause the most pronounced immune response amongst the studied participants can be identified, which may indicate the presence of food intolerances. An athlete’s diet is influenced by both external and internal factors that can reduce or worsen the symptoms of a food intolerance/allergy associated with exercise. The range of foods is wide, and the effectiveness of a diet depends on the time, the place, and environmental factors. Therefore, during the recovery period (the post-competition period), athletes are advised to follow the instructions of doctors and nutritionists. An effective, comprehensive recovery strategy during the recovery period may enhance the adaptive response to fatigue, improving muscle function and increasing exercise tolerance. The data obtained may be useful for guiding the development of a new personalized approach and dietary recommendations covering the composition of athletes’ diet and the prevalence of food intolerance.
Dataset: ELISA data were deposited at the Mendeley Database, v2, Malsagova Kristina (2021), “Determination of IgG specific for the diagnosis of food intolerance in athletes”,, accessed on 11 November 2021.
Dataset License: CC-BY 4.0

1. Summary

Any atypical reactions after the consumption of food, such as food hypersensitivity, including food intolerances and food allergies or food aversions, are defined as adverse food reactions [1]. Food intolerance (FI) affects up to 20% of the world’s population, but the true prevalence remains unknown due to a data deficiency [2] and the lack of a standardized assessment for FI [3]. Routine clinical tests for FI can be conditionally divided into two types: cellular (the study of changes in blood cells) and humoral (the study of the level of antibodies specific to food antigens (AGs)) [4].
Cellular tests (CT) include the Cito test [5] and the Prime test [4] and were the first to be introduced into clinical practice for FI determination [6] The antigen leukocyte antibody test (ALCAT) method automatically calculates the linear dimensions or size distribution of leukocytes as the end markers of type 2 reactions between blood cells and food AGs [7,8]. The mediator release test (MRT) is based on flow cytometry using laser radiation scattering [9]. The main disadvantages of such methods include a high degree of subjectivity due to the visual assessment and manual curation of results, the poor reliability and reproducibility, the selectivity of affinity interactions, and the duration of the analysis. Currently, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the main method for the determination of the antigen–antibody reaction and is widely recognized in allergology and immunology due to its high selectivity, reproducibility, and specificity [10,11]. In ELISA, the diagnostic marker is a measure of antigen-specific immunoglobulins of class G (IgG) or subclass G4 (IgG4) [12]. In addition, approaches such as the immunological solid-phase allergen chip (ImmunoCAP-ISAC) and Western blot are based on the ELISA approach [3].
There are key pathophysiological differences between food allergies and food intolerances. A food allergy occurs as a result of an immunological reaction to a certain kind of food and ubiquitously affects the body system. In contrast, food intolerance is a non-immunological reaction initiated by a food component in a normally tolerated dose. However, the subsequent response occurs with the implication of cellular and humoral reactions of the immune system [13]. While a food allergy is usually mediated by IgE antibodies, a food intolerance is mediated by IgG antibodies [14,15,16]. Such differences between the two pathological conditions require divergent diagnostic and therapeutic strategies [14,15,16].
Patients with food intolerances who present with allergic symptoms are usually screened for specific IgE antibodies, which they might not bear. In this case, the time to produce IgG can vary from several days to several months [17]. Consequently, this group of patients may remain undiagnosed and suffer from frolicking symptoms, which are, in turn, associated with significant financial costs for both patients and healthcare resources. [17,18,19].
It is believed that IgG-mediated FI is caused by increased intestinal permeability, which leads to the release of food chemical compounds into the circulation and induces the production of specific IgG [15]. Increased generation of IgGs and low generation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGFβ1) are associated with irritable bowel syndrome [20].
The combination of dyes, preservatives, and hardeners in biologically active additives (dietary supplements) and food supplements entails an overload of the immune system and the consequent development of numerous chronic diseases. With a single instance of consumption of such products, the formation of a disproportionate number of immune complexes does not lead to a noticeable disturbance in the body’s functioning. However, the continual presence of such products in the diet leads to a significant increase in immune complexes, an extremely high loading on the immune system, and the emergence of many chronic diseases.
Current investigations show that the influence of the immune system on digestive processes is the basic factor affecting human health in general [21,22]. Ignoring this knowledge can lead to the development of such pathological conditions as obesity, chronic fatigue, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and allergies [14]. Moreover, drug therapy and traditional nutritional approaches are ineffective in this case. It has been shown that, with the development of a food intolerance, the use of an elimination diet, which involves the exclusion of foods causing undesirable reactions, leads to a significant improvement in symptoms [23].
Sports nutrition is a newly emerging multidisciplinary approach that combines elements of physiology, biochemistry, valeology, pharmacology, and sports pedagogy and aims to perform the following tasks:
improvement of the general and special performance of athletes;
acceleration of recovery and prevention of overstraining after exertion;
acceleration of adaptation to climate and normalization of biological rhythms when moving over long distances;
stabilization of the immunity of athletes;
regulation of body weight; and
maintenance of the optimal hydration balance and metabolism of basic minerals.
However, the use of food supplements with complex ingredients can lead to an immunological conflict, a deterioration in the state of the body, and, as a consequence, to a decrease in athletes’ abilities.
This study intended to determine food intolerances in a group of athletes (n = 40) by the method of solid-phase non-competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich type). Due to the bivalent interaction of antibodies with antigene molecules, very strong cyclic complexes [24,25] can be formed when using the sandwich method. Being energetically more favorable, cyclic complexes are organized even at a low concentration of the antigen [24], which improves the analytical sensitivity meaningfully [24,25]. The sandwich-type immunoassay tests permit the achievement of a reliable analytical sensitivity and specificity due to the recognition of two different epitopes and the accommodation of strong cyclic complexes.
The assay was performed using a commercial ELISA kit for the semi-quantitative determination of allergen-specific IgG antibodies.
The study included blood plasma samples obtained from athletes enrolled by the A.I. Burnasyan State Research Center at the Federal Medical Biophysical Center of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia (, accessed on 11 November 2021). All subjects provided informed consent before participating in the study.

2. Data Description

2.1. Study Participants

The study involved 40 athletes from various sports disciplines, including 22 athletes engaged in boating (6 females aged 21 ± 0.75 years old, 16 males aged 22 ± 0.8 years old) and 18 athletes engaged in fighting (males aged 27 ± 4.46 years old) (Table 1).

2.2. Results of IgG-Specific Determination

The study population comprised six females and 16 males aged 21.6 ± 0.9 years old engaged in boating and 18 athletes engaged in fighting (males aged 27.6 ± 4.4 years old) (Table 2).
The result of the determination of IgG specific to 30 food antigens (Figure 1) demonstrates a narrow range of optical density (OD) scattering (from 0.07 to 0.15) and the presence of outliers. However, data heterogeneity is typically tracked within a wider signal range and achieves 0.2–0.4 OD (Figure 1).
In particular, the most pronounced signals, and, accordingly, immune responses were detected against beef protein, coconut, pomegranate, corn, wheat peanut protein, and whey proteins.
It should be noticed that the immune response does not depend on the type of sport discipline (Figure 1). The analysis of the ELISA signal did not demonstrate a gender-specific distribution of the signal (Wilcoxon test at p < 0.05) with the lowest p = 0.07. The most definite difference in the immune response between the boating and fighting groups was observed regarding the following food products: rice, peanut protein, sunflower, and strawberry. The variety of distinct food products is, probably, caused by both personal diet preferences and individual nutritional programs coordinated by the coaching staff to improve athletes’ abilities and recovery during the training period.
An intolerance to an almost complete set of allergens was revealed in subjects 25, 26, 67, and 68 (Figure 2). However, the disclosure of outliers might have been caused by a certain pathological condition (e.g., an inflammatory or chronic disease) at the sampling time, while a definite response to only one particular food compound (such as honey, spinach, or peanut protein) is more typical and was observed within the study (Figure 2).

3. Methods

Following overnight fasting, the blood samples were collected in 3.8% sodium citrate (IMPROVACUTER, Guangzhou Improve Medical Instruments Co., Ltd., Guangzhou, China) vacutainers from the cubital vein and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 6 min at room temperature. Each plasma sample (500 μL) was split into two aliquots and transferred into polypropylene test tubes stored at −80 °C.
This study was approved by the independent Local Research Ethics Committee of the A.I. Burnasyan State Research Center at the Federal Medical Biophysical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia (Protocol no. 40 issued on 18 November 2020). All data presented in this study were obtained during the out-of-competition period.
In order to identify the risk of somatic–allergic reactions upon contact with antigens, we employed a set of ELISA reagents designed for research and educational purposes (LLC, Immunovet, Russia) that realize a semiquantitative determination of IgG specific to protein-to-peptide antigens in food. The assay is based on a non-competitive indirect sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay. One single kit is designed for the analysis of 30 allergens (the list of allergens is available at 10.17632/gmmkwh26r9.1(accessed on 11 November 2021) in three test samples and includes five calibration samples and one control sample.
This work was supported by the World-class Scientific Center “Digital Biodesign and Personalized Healthcare” within the framework of the national project “Science”. The Center brings together the efforts of several universities and research institutes as members of the scientific Consortium for the Digitalization of Healthcare and the Development of Approaches to Human Health Management over the 2020–2025 period.
The significance of the between-group comparison was determined using the Wilcoxon test at a p-value cut-off of less than 0.05. The inter-quartile (IQR) criterion means that all observations above q0.75 + 1.5 IQR or below q0.25 − 1.5 IQR (where q0.25 and q0.75 correspond to first and third quartile, respectively, and the IQR is the difference between the third and first quartile) are considered to be potential outliers. In other words, all observations outside of the interval are considered to be potential outliers. With the percentile method, all observations outside the interval between the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were considered to be potential outliers. Hampel’s filter consists of considering as outliers the values outside the interval (I) formed by the median, plus or minus 3 median absolute deviations (MAD): I = [median − 3 MAD; median + 3 MAD], where MAD is the median absolute deviation and is defined as the median of the absolute deviations from the data’s median ~X = median(X): MAD = median(|Xi − ~X|). Grubbs’s test allows us to detect whether the highest or lowest value in a dataset is an outlier. Dixon’s test was used to test whether a single low or high value was an outlier. Rosner’s test was used to detect several outliers at once.

4. Discussion

The present study aimed to assess the nutritional performance of age-aligned athletes belonging to boating or fighting sports disciplines. We performed an intergroup analysis of the 30 food allergen panel recommended for athletes. The designed test system targets 24 allergens of plant origin (soy protein, honey, grapes, citrus fruits, strawberries, etc.) and six allergens of animal origin (animal protein, yeast protein, etc.). We found no significant intergroup (between sport disciplines) differences (at a cut-off of p < 0.05) in FI and allergy reactions, and no significant difference if the immune response regarding gender and age matters.
We determined that studied participants predominantly only responded to one or two food allergens (Figure 2). Additional questioning of the studied participants for self-diagnosis of a possible food intolerance to certain foods revealed a kind of discomfort and unwanted symptoms observed after (participant #1 (male), #8 (female), and #14 (female); all athletes were involved in the boating discipline): eating more than five tangerines at one meal, which resulted in a rash on the face (participant #14) and eating fried meat, which was accompanied by nausea (participant #1 and #8).
A proper balance between regular training intensity, rest, recovery, and fit-for-purpose nutritional support is key to maximizing and optimizing athletes’ performance.
Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier increases the risk of uncontrolled immune responses to food and microbial antigens, as well as to environmental toxins [26]. Such maladies stimulate the production of IgGs specific to food antigens. If the “dietary” antibody level keeps rising, this may eventually result in IgG-mediated food intolerances to that particular food [27].
A recent longitudinal study showed that elimination diets based on an IgG-mediated food intolerance led to significant improvements in gastrointestinal discomfort symptoms and exercise performance [28].
Most athletes did not notice a clear deterioration in their condition after eating certain foods. The reaction to tangerines (participant #14) may have been caused by a manifestation of an allergic reaction. Feeling unwell after eating fried meat (participant #1 and #8) has been associated with the type of food preparation, intolerance to the foods used in its preparation (oil, spices, etc.), and/or a violation of the digestive process.
In dietetics, new directions are actively being developed that are focused on personalized dietary programs [29]. Such directions include (1) genetic studies that aim to determine the predisposition to a particular type of food and the risk of foodborne illness [30]; (2) studies on the human microbiota diversity, which characterizes the digestion performance and the state of the intestinal barrier [31]; and (3) studies on the individual immune response to food antigens that cause changes in food tolerance and the reactivity of the adaptive immune response.
There is a high level of food intolerance among athletes. Some studies have linked the FI in professional athletes with excessive physical activity [29]. To assess the impact of a food intolerance on the athletic performance and health of elite athletes, a three-month experimental longitudinal study was conducted [29]. Based on the obtained result, an individual elimination diet was drawn up. Blood tests showed a reduction in post-diet food intolerances in each athlete, indicating that the elimination diet significantly improved the athlete’s well-being, resulting in a more rapid decrease in heart rate after cardiopulmonary testing.
Symptoms of food intolerance can vary and include gastrointestinal upset (bloating, loose stools, abdominal pain) and/or extraintestinal symptoms (fatigue, headaches, and cognitive problems) that appear several hours or days after eating. Some of these symptoms coincide with those of irritable bowel syndrome and exercise-induced functional gastrointestinal disorders [32]. Given the ambiguous nature of food intolerance, its diagnosis, generally, is carried out by athletes on their own, followed by the cancellation of certain foods or a group of foods [33].

5. Conclusions

Currently, a wide range of testing methods can be used to determine the prevalence of intolerance to certain foods and/or their components. In the present study, we examined the possible food intolerance amongst 40 athletes belonging to boating or fighting sport disciplines. The majority of study participants had an increased immune response to one or two food allergens, while some subjects may have had an intolerance to several food products. We did not observe a correlation between the immune response and anthropometric characteristics or the kind of sport discipline under consideration (boating or fighting).

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, A.L.K. and K.M.; methodology, K.M.; software, A.S.; validation, A.A.S.; formal analysis, A.I.; investigation, A.A.S.; resources, M.S.K.; data curation, A.L.K.; writing—original draft preparation, A.T.K. and K.M.; writing—review and editing, A.T.K. and K.M. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This work was financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation within the framework of state support for the creation and development of the World-Class Research Center “Digital Biodesign and Personalized Healthcare”, no. 75-15-2020-913.

Institutional Review Board Statement

This study was approved by the Local Research Ethics Committee of the State Research Center at the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia (Protocol no. 40 issued on 18 November 2020).

Informed Consent Statement

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Data Availability Statement

ELISA data were deposited at the Mendeley Database, v2, Malsagova Kristina (2021), “Determination of IgG specific for the diagnosis of food intolerance in athletes”, 10.17632/gmmkwh26r9.2(accessed on 11 November 2021). The repository contains files with the results of the ELISA analysis. The name of the file contains the sport, the analyzed samples, and the number of technical repetitions. Each file contains absorption data, a calibration curve, a summary of results, and information about the used instruments. The reader can also find a list of tested allergens and the design of the ELISA plate in the repository.


We express our gratitude to the director of the “ImmunoHealth” company, Rosenstein, A. Z., for a set of ELISA reagents developed and designed for research and educational purposes.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Tuck, C.J.; Biesiekierski, J.R.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Pohl, D. Food Intolerances. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1684. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  2. Lomer, M.C.E. Review Article: The Aetiology, Diagnosis, Mechanisms and Clinical Evidence for Food Intolerance. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2015, 41, 262–275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Salazar, A.; Velázquez-Soto, H.; Ayala-Balboa, J.; Jiménez-Martínez, M.C. Allergen-based diagnostic: Novel and old methodologies with new approaches. In Allergen; Athari, S.S., Ed.; InTech: London, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  4. Rosensteyn, M.Y.; Rosensteyn, A.Z.; Kondakov, S.E.; Cherevko, N.A. Modern methods of food intolerance testing. Bull. Sib. Med. 2016, 15, 69–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  5. Bryan, W.T.; Bryan, M.P. Cytotoxic Reactions in the Diagnosis of Food Allergy. Laryngoscope 1969, 79, 1453–1472. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Delves, P.J.; Martin, S.J.; Burton, D.R.; Roitt, I.M. Roitt’s Essential Immunology, 13th ed.; Wiley-Blackwell: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2017; p. 576. ISBN 978-1-118-41577-1. [Google Scholar]
  7. Fell, P.J.; Soulsby, S.; Brostoff, J. Cellular Responses to Food in Irritable Bowel Syndrome—An Investigation of the ALCAT Test. J. Nutr. Med. 1991, 2, 143–149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Solomon, B. Test—A guide and barometer in the therapy of environmental and food sensitivities. Inviromental Med. 2000, 9, 2–6. [Google Scholar]
  9. Demoly, P.; Lebel, B.; Arnoux, B. Allergen-Induced Mediator Release Tests. Allergy 2003, 58, 553–558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Karsonova, A.; Riabova, K.; Villazala-Merino, S.; Campana, R.; Niederberger, V.; Eckl-Dorna, J.; Fröschl, R.; Perkmann, T.; Zhernov, Y.V.; Elisyutina, O.G.; et al. Highly Sensitive ELISA-based Assay for Quantification of Allergen-specific IgE Antibody Levels. Allergy 2020, 75, 2668–2670. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Venter, C. Food Hypersensitivity: Diagnosing and Managing Food Allergies and Intolerances. J. Allergy 2012, 2012, 1–2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  12. Schroeder, H.W.; Cavacini, L. Structure and Function of Immunoglobulins. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2010, 125, S41–S52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  13. Rosenstein, A.Z.; Kondakov, S.E.; Cherevko, N.A.; Rosenstein, M.Y. Fundamentals of Immunodietology; Technosphere: Moscow, Russia; New York, NY, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
  14. Gaur, S.; Kumar, R. Food Allergy or Food Intolerance...? Indian J. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013, 27, 93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Beyer, K.; Teuber, S.S. Food Allergy Diagnostics: Scientific and Unproven Procedures. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2005, 5, 261–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Turner, P.J.; Kemp, A.S. Intolerance to Food Additives—Does It Exist? J. Paediatr. Child Health 2012, 48, E10–E14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Guo, H.; Jiang, T.; Wang, J.; Chang, Y.; Guo, H.; Zhang, W. The Value of Eliminating Foods According to Food-Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibodies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhoea. J. Int. Med. Res. 2012, 40, 204–210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Aydinlar, E.I.; Dikmen, P.Y.; Tiftikci, A.; Saruc, M.; Aksu, M.; Gunsoy, H.G.; Tozun, N. IgG-Based Elimination Diet in Migraine Plus Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Headache J. Head Face Pain 2013, 53, 514–525. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Halbrich, M.; Ben-Shoshan, M.; Rex, G. Friend or Foe? Figuring out the Difference between FPIES, IgE-Mediated Allergy and Food Intolerance. Case Rep. 2014, 2014, bcr2013200254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  20. Sentsova, T.B.; Vorozhko, I.V.; Isakov, V.A.; Morozov, S.V.; Shakhovskaia, A.K. Immune status estimation algorithm in irritable bowel syndrome patients with food intolerance. Eksp. Klin. Gastroenterol. Exp. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2014, 7, 13–17. [Google Scholar]
  21. Broderick, N.A. A Common Origin for Immunity and Digestion. Front. Immunol. 2015, 6, 72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Cryan, J.F.; O’Riordan, K.J.; Cowan, C.S.M.; Sandhu, K.V.; Bastiaanssen, T.F.S.; Boehme, M.; Codagnone, M.G.; Cussotto, S.; Fulling, C.; Golubeva, A.V.; et al. The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Physiol. Rev. 2019, 99, 1877–2013. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Kumar, R.; Kumar, M.; Singh, M.; Bisht, I.; Gaur, S.; Gupta, N. Prevalence of Food Intolerance in Bronchial Asthma in India. Indian J. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013, 27, 121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Ehrlich, P.H.; Moyle, W.R. Specificity Considerations in Cooperative Immunoassays. Clin. Chem. 1984, 30, 1523–1532. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Jackson, A.P.; Siddle, K.; Thompson, R.J. A Monoclonal Antibody to Human Brain-Type Creatine Kinase. Increased Avidity with Mercaptans. Biochem. J. 1983, 215, 505–512. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  26. Rodiño-Janeiro, B.K.; Alonso-Cotoner, C.; Pigrau, M.; Lobo, B.; Vicario, M.; Santos, J. Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Gastrointestinal Permeability. J. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2015, 21, 33–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  27. Cai, C.; Shen, J.; Zhao, D.; Qiao, Y.; Xu, A.; Jin, S.; Ran, Z.; Zheng, Q. Serological Investigation of Food Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibodies in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e112154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Kostic-Vucicevic, M.; Michalickova, D.; Dikic, N.; Stojmenovic, T.; Andjelkovic, M.; Nikolic, I.; Vukasinovic-Vesic, M.; Malic, T. Food Elimination Based on Immunoglobulin G Antibodies Improves Gastrointestinal Discomfort Symptoms and Sport Performance in Professional Athletes. Med. Sport 2018, 70, 480–494. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Malsagova, K.A.; Kopylov, A.T.; Sinitsyna, A.A.; Stepanov, A.A.; Izotov, A.A.; Butkova, T.V.; Chingin, K.; Klyuchnikov, M.S.; Kaysheva, A.L. Sports Nutrition: Diets, Selection Factors, Recommendations. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3771. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Collier, R. The DNA-Based Diet. CMAJ Can. Med. Assoc. J. 2017, 189, E40–E41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  31. Rivera-Pinto, J.; Egozcue, J.J.; Pawlowsky-Glahn, V.; Paredes, R.; Noguera-Julian, M.; Calle, M.L. Balances: A New Perspective for Microbiome Analysis. mSystems 2018, 3, e00053-18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  32. Messina, M.; Venter, C. Recent Surveys on Food Allergy Prevalence. Nutr. Today 2020, 55, 22–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Lis, D.M.; Kings, D.; Larson-Meyer, D.E. Dietary Practices Adopted by Track-and-Field Athletes: Gluten-Free, Low FODMAP, Vegetarian, and Fasting. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2019, 29, 236–245. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Comparison of the results of semi-quantitative determination of IgG antibodies in the blood plasma of athletes engaged in boating and fighting. The data are presented in the form of a boxplot. The number of technical repetitions is 3. Asterisks indicate food allergens with a p-value < 0.05 (Wilcoxon test).
Figure 1. Comparison of the results of semi-quantitative determination of IgG antibodies in the blood plasma of athletes engaged in boating and fighting. The data are presented in the form of a boxplot. The number of technical repetitions is 3. Asterisks indicate food allergens with a p-value < 0.05 (Wilcoxon test).
Data 06 00122 g001
Figure 2. Diagram of the change in optical density of the Multiskan FC immune analyzer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) in the study of the presence in the blood plasma of each athlete of IgG antibodies specific to 30 food allergens. The X axis shows the numbers of biosamples of athletes, and the Y axis shows the immobilized antigens.
Figure 2. Diagram of the change in optical density of the Multiskan FC immune analyzer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) in the study of the presence in the blood plasma of each athlete of IgG antibodies specific to 30 food allergens. The X axis shows the numbers of biosamples of athletes, and the Y axis shows the immobilized antigens.
Data 06 00122 g002
Table 1. Main characteristics and attributes of the plasma sample donors.
Table 1. Main characteristics and attributes of the plasma sample donors.
AgeSexWeight, kgHeight, cmSampleSport
AgeSexWeight, kgHeight, cm
Table 2. Demography.
Table 2. Demography.
Male (n = 16)Female (n = 6)Male (n = 18)
Age21.9 ± 0.820.8 ± 0.727.6 ± 4.4
Weight, kg90 ± 6.676.5 ± 9.487.8 ± 18.1
Height, cm179.3 ± 36.4176.6 ± 9.7173.6 ± 27.9
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Malsagova, K.; Stepanov, A.; Sinitsyna, A.A.; Izotov, A.; Klyuchnikov, M.S.; Kopylov, A.T.; Kaysheva, A.L. Determination of Specific IgG to Identify Possible Food Intolerance in Athletes Using ELISA. Data 2021, 6, 122.

AMA Style

Malsagova K, Stepanov A, Sinitsyna AA, Izotov A, Klyuchnikov MS, Kopylov AT, Kaysheva AL. Determination of Specific IgG to Identify Possible Food Intolerance in Athletes Using ELISA. Data. 2021; 6(11):122.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Malsagova, Kristina, Alexander Stepanov, Alexandra A. Sinitsyna, Alexander Izotov, Mikhail S. Klyuchnikov, Arthur T. Kopylov, and Anna L. Kaysheva. 2021. "Determination of Specific IgG to Identify Possible Food Intolerance in Athletes Using ELISA" Data 6, no. 11: 122.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop