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Towards the Construction of a Gold Standard Biomedical Corpus for the Romanian Language

Romanian Academy Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence, 13 Calea 13 Septembrie, Bucharest 050711, Romania
National Institute of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases “N.C. Paulescu”, 5-7 Ion Movilă Street, Bucharest 020475, Romania
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curative Power of Medical Data)
PDF [233 KB, uploaded 23 November 2018]


Gold standard corpora (GSCs) are essential for the supervised training and evaluation of systems that perform natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Currently, most of the resources used in biomedical NLP tasks are mainly in English. Little effort has been reported for other languages including Romanian and, thus, access to such language resources is poor. In this paper, we present the construction of the first morphologically and terminologically annotated biomedical corpus of the Romanian language (MoNERo), meant to serve as a gold standard for biomedical part-of-speech (POS) tagging and biomedical named entity recognition (bioNER). It contains 14,012 tokens distributed in three medical subdomains: cardiology, diabetes and endocrinology, extracted from books, journals and blogposts. In order to automatically annotate the corpus with POS tags, we used a Romanian tag set which has 715 labels, while diseases, anatomy, procedures and chemicals and drugs labels were manually annotated for bioNER with a Cohen Kappa coefficient of 92.8% and revealed the occurrence of 1877 medical named entities. The automatic annotation of the corpus has been manually checked. The corpus is publicly available and can be used to facilitate the development of NLP algorithms for the Romanian language. View Full-Text
Keywords: corpus; biomedical; Romanian; part-of-speech tags; named entities corpus; biomedical; Romanian; part-of-speech tags; named entities

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Mitrofan, M.; Barbu Mititelu, V.; Mitrofan, G. Towards the Construction of a Gold Standard Biomedical Corpus for the Romanian Language. Data 2018, 3, 53.

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