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Raw and Heat-Treated Milk: From Public Health Risks to Nutritional Quality
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Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition

Alessandra Durazzo
Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria—Centro di ricerca CREA—Alimenti e Nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 63;
Submission received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)

1. Introduction

In the current Special Issue, numerous and different aspects related to milk, an important component of a well-balanced diet, are presented.
Several of the scientists that contributed to this Special Issue investigated and tested the effectiveness of actions targeting the promotion of milk, and an increase in general daily milk consumption, especially for children: an important goal to achieve [1,2,3,4]. Gennaro et al. [3] provide an updated picture of communication strategies developed to improve healthy dietary habits in schoolchildren, with a focus on the importance of milk consumption. An example of this strategy is given by Emerson et al. [1]: small prizes increased plain milk and vegetable selection by elementary schoolchildren without adversely affecting total milk purchase. Two [2,4] of these studies are addressed towards consumer reactions relating to interventions promoting use of 1% low-fat milk.
It is worth mentioning the work of Lucarini [5] on the bioactive peptides of milk, from encrypted sequences to healthy applications; the author underlines how the exploitation of chemistry, bioavailability and the biochemical properties of bioactive peptides represent a key tool for nutraceutical and functional foods, also in the areas of circular bioeconomy and biorefinery [5]. In this context, the review by Vincenzetti et al. [6] focuses on the role of proteins and some bioactive peptides on nutritional quality, as well as the potential beneficial properties of donkey milk.
The microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of raw and heat-treated milk are described in the work of Melini et al. [7], in order to evaluate the real risks and benefits of its consumption. Then, Gambelli [8] provides an updated picture of methodologies for the assessment of lactose. Some studies on the potential benefits of some milk components [9,10], as well as a consideration from a nutritional point of view of organic vs. conventional milk with regard to fat-soluble vitamins and iodine content [11], are also discussed.
I would like to acknowledge the efforts of the authors of the publications in this Special Issue. Their contributions will help to improve the understanding and promotion the key role of milk in nutrition.


  1. Emerson, M.; Hudgens, M.; Barnes, A.; Hiller, E.; Robison, D.; Kipp, R.; Bradshaw, U.; Siegel, R. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase. Beverages 2017, 3, 14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Finnell, K.J.; John, R. Research to Understand Milk Consumption Behaviors in a Food-Insecure Low-Income SNAP Population in the US. Beverages 2017, 3, 46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Gennaro, L.; Durazzo, A.; Berni Canani, S.; Maccati, F.; Lupotto, E. Communication Strategies to Improve Healthy Food Consumption among Schoolchildren: Focus on Milk. Beverages 2017, 3, 32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. John, R.; Finnell, K.J.; Kerby, D.S.; Owen, J.; Hansen, K. Reactions to a Low-Fat Milk Social Media Intervention in the US: The Choose 1% Milk Campaign. Beverages 2017, 3, 47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Lucarini, M. Bioactive Peptides in Milk: From Encrypted Sequences to Nutraceutical Aspects. Beverages 2017, 3, 41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Vincenzetti, S.; Pucciarelli, S.; Polzonetti, V.; Polidori, P. Role of Proteins and of Some Bioactive Peptides on the Nutritional Quality of Donkey Milk and Their Impact on Human Health. Beverages 2017, 3, 34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Melini, F.; Melini, V.; Luziatelli, F.; Ruzzi, M. Raw and Heat-Treated Milk: From Public Health Risks to Nutritional Quality. Beverages 2017, 3, 54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Gambelli, L. Milk and Its Sugar-Lactose: A Picture of Evaluation Methodologies. Beverages 2017, 3, 35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Gupta, C.; Prakash, D. Therapeutic Potential of Milk Whey. Beverages 2017, 3, 31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Norris, G.H.; Porter, C.M.; Jiang, C.; Blesso, C.N. Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Inhibits LPS Activity in Macrophages. Beverages 2017, 3, 37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Manzi, P.; Durazzo, A. Organic vs. Conventional Milk: Some Considerations on Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Iodine Content. Beverages 2017, 3, 39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

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MDPI and ACS Style

Durazzo, A. Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition. Beverages 2017, 3, 63.

AMA Style

Durazzo A. Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition. Beverages. 2017; 3(4):63.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Durazzo, Alessandra. 2017. "Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition" Beverages 3, no. 4: 63.

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