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Elemental Profiles of Whisk(e)y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region

by 1,2,†, 3, 1,2,* and 1,2,3
1
Department of Viticulture & Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Food Safety & Measurement Facility, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95051, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Academic Editor: Dimitrios Zabaras
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages3010008
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Elemental fingerprints could provide an analytical approach to product differentiation and authentication, and have been used in the past for various distilled spirits, including brandy, gin, bourbon and tequila. However, a comparison of elemental differences between different whisk(e)y types, such as Bourbon and Scotch, is still missing. In this study we compare the elemental fingerprints of 68 commercial whiskies for differentiation by type (Bourbon, Tennessee, Scotch, Irish, Japanese) and region. Concentrations from sub-μg/L to mid-mg/L of 53 different elements were determined with inductively-coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and microwave plasma—atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES), and used in subsequent statistical analyses. Significant differences in several elements were found for type, and allowed a classification according to whisk(e)y type. Elemental differences were also found for different production areas within Scotland, thus, providing further evidence that Scotch whiskies could be differentiated by elemental analysis. Major sources of elemental differences seem to be processing equipment (Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd, Sn, Mo, V) and raw materials, such as water (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr). View Full-Text
Keywords: whiskey; whisky; type; Scotch; Bourbon; elemental profile; trace metals whiskey; whisky; type; Scotch; Bourbon; elemental profile; trace metals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hopfer, H.; Gilleland, G.; Ebeler, S.E.; Nelson, J. Elemental Profiles of Whisk(e)y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region. Beverages 2017, 3, 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages3010008

AMA Style

Hopfer H, Gilleland G, Ebeler SE, Nelson J. Elemental Profiles of Whisk(e)y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region. Beverages. 2017; 3(1):8. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages3010008

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hopfer, Helene, Greg Gilleland, Susan E. Ebeler, and Jenny Nelson. 2017. "Elemental Profiles of Whisk(e)y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region" Beverages 3, no. 1: 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages3010008

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