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Article

Biomechanically Tunable Nano-Silica/P-HEMA Structural Hydrogels for Bone Scaffolding

1
Advanced Materials Lab, Department of Architecture and Industrial Design, Second University of Naples, Abazia di San Lorenzo, 81031 Aversa, Italy
2
IFToMM, ARoTMM, Bucharest Polytechnic University, Splaiul Independenței 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
3
CalabroDental, Via Enrico Fermi 5C, 88900 Crotone, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juana Mendenhall
Bioengineering 2021, 8(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8040045
Received: 13 March 2021 / Revised: 24 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 4 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogels Used for Biomanufacturing)
Innovative tissue engineering biomimetic hydrogels based on hydrophilic polymers have been investigated for their physical and mechanical properties. 5% to 25% by volume loading PHEMA-nanosilica glassy hybrid samples were equilibrated at 37 °C in aqueous physiological isotonic and hypotonic saline solutions (0.15 and 0.05 M NaCl) simulating two limiting possible compositions of physiological extracellular fluids. The glassy and hydrated hybrid materials were characterized by both dynamo-mechanical properties and equilibrium absorptions in the two physiological-like aqueous solutions. The mechanical and morphological modifications occurring in the samples have been described. The 5% volume nanosilica loading hybrid nanocomposite composition showed mechanical characteristics in the dry and hydrated states that were comparable to those of cortical bone and articular cartilage, respectively, and then chosen for further sorption kinetics characterization. Sorption and swelling kinetics were monitored up to equilibrium. Changes in water activities and osmotic pressures in the water-hybrid systems equilibrated at the two limiting solute molarities of the physiological solutions have been related to the observed anomalous sorption modes using the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter approach. The bulk modulus of the dry and glassy PHEMA-5% nanosilica hybrid at 37 °C has been observed to be comparable with the values of the osmotic pressures generated from the sorption of isotonic and hypotonic solutions. The anomalous sorption modes and swelling rates are coherent with the difference between osmotic swelling pressures and hybrid glassy nano-composite bulk modulus: the lower the differences the higher the swelling rate and equilibrium solution uptakes. Bone tissue engineering benefits of the use of tuneable biomimetic scaffold biomaterials that can be “designed” to act as biocompatible and biomechanically active hybrid interfaces are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomimetic hydrogels; hybrid nanocomposites; anomalous sorption; tissue engineering biomimetic hydrogels; hybrid nanocomposites; anomalous sorption; tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aversa, R.; Petrescu, R.V.; Petrescu, F.I.T.; Perrotta, V.; Apicella, D.; Apicella, A. Biomechanically Tunable Nano-Silica/P-HEMA Structural Hydrogels for Bone Scaffolding. Bioengineering 2021, 8, 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8040045

AMA Style

Aversa R, Petrescu RV, Petrescu FIT, Perrotta V, Apicella D, Apicella A. Biomechanically Tunable Nano-Silica/P-HEMA Structural Hydrogels for Bone Scaffolding. Bioengineering. 2021; 8(4):45. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8040045

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aversa, Raffaella, Relly V. Petrescu, Florian I.T. Petrescu, Valeria Perrotta, Davide Apicella, and Antonio Apicella. 2021. "Biomechanically Tunable Nano-Silica/P-HEMA Structural Hydrogels for Bone Scaffolding" Bioengineering 8, no. 4: 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8040045

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