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Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040091

Augmentation of Dermal Wound Healing by Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells (ASC)

1
Department of Pathology & Medical Biology, University of Groningen and University Medical Centre of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Groningen and University Medical Centre of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Plastic Surgery, Bergman Clinics, Den Haag & Rijswijk, Binckhorstlaan 149, 2516 BA Den Haag, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration)
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Abstract

The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line of defense against physical and biological damage. Thus, the skin is equipped to self-repair and regenerates after trauma. Skin regeneration after damage comprises a tightly spatial-temporally regulated process of wound healing that involves virtually all cell types in the skin. Wound healing features five partially overlapping stages: homeostasis, inflammation, proliferation, re-epithelization, and finally resolution or fibrosis. Dysreguled wound healing may resolve in dermal scarring. Adipose tissue is long known for its suppressive influence on dermal scarring. Cultured adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) secrete a plethora of regenerative growth factors and immune mediators that influence processes during wound healing e.g., angiogenesis, modulation of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. In clinical practice, ASCs are usually administered as part of fractionated adipose tissue i.e., as part of enzymatically isolated SVF (cellular SVF), mechanically isolated SVF (tissue SVF), or as lipograft. Enzymatic isolation of SVF obtained adipose tissue results in suspension of adipocyte-free cells (cSVF) that lack intact intercellular adhesions or connections to extracellular matrix (ECM). Mechanical isolation of SVF from adipose tissue destructs the parenchyma (adipocytes), which results in a tissue SVF (tSVF) with intact connections between cells, as well as matrix. To date, due to a lack of well-designed prospective randomized clinical trials, neither cSVF, tSVF, whole adipose tissue, or cultured ASCs can be indicated as the preferred preparation procedure prior to therapeutic administration. In this review, we present and discuss current literature regarding the different administration options to apply ASCs (i.e., cultured ASCs, cSVF, tSVF, and lipografting) to augment dermal wound healing, as well as the available indications for clinical efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose derived stromal cells; lipografting; wound healing; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction; skin adipose derived stromal cells; lipografting; wound healing; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction; skin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Van Dongen, J.A.; Harmsen, M.C.; Van der Lei, B.; Stevens, H.P. Augmentation of Dermal Wound Healing by Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells (ASC). Bioengineering 2018, 5, 91.

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