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Open AccessArticle

Microfabricated and 3-D Printed Soft Bioelectronic Constructs from PAn-PAAMPSA-Containing Hydrogels

1
Bioelectronics, Biosensors and Biochips (C3B®), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2
ABTECH Scientific, Inc., Biotechnology Research Park, 800 East Leigh Street, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040087
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Biomaterials for Regenerative Engineering)
The formation of hybrid bioactive and inherently conductive constructs of composites formed from polyaniline-polyacrylamidomethylpropane sulfonic acid (PAn-PAAMPSA) nanomaterials (0.00–10.0 wt%) within poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate-co-N-{Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl} acrylamide)-co-polyethyleneglycol methacrylate) p(HEMA-co-HMMA-co-PEGMA) hydrogels was made possible using microlithographic fabrication and 3-D printing. Hybrid constructs formed by combining a non-conductive base (0.00 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA) and electroconductive (ECH) (varying wt% PAn-PAAMPSA) hydrogels using these two production techniques were directly compared. Hydrogels were electrically characterized using two-point probe resistivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results show that incorporation of >0.10 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA within the base hydrogel matrices was enough to achieve percolation and high conductivity with a membrane resistance (RM) of 2140 Ω and 87.9 Ω for base (0.00 wt%) and ECH (10.0 wt%), respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy of electroconductive hydrogels indicated a bandgap of 2.8 eV that was measurable at concentrations of >0.10 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA. Both base and electroconductive hydrogels supported the attachment and growth of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells. When the base hydrogel was rendered bioactive by the inclusion of collagen (>200 µg/mL), it also supported the attachment, but not the differentiation, of PC-12 neural progenitor cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroconductive hydrogels; polyaniline; 3-D printing; microfabrication; 4-D hydrogels; electrical impedance spectroscopy; collagen; NIH/3T3; PC-12 electroconductive hydrogels; polyaniline; 3-D printing; microfabrication; 4-D hydrogels; electrical impedance spectroscopy; collagen; NIH/3T3; PC-12
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aggas, J.R.; Abasi, S.; Smith, B.; Zimmerman, M.; Deprest, M.; Guiseppi-Elie, A. Microfabricated and 3-D Printed Soft Bioelectronic Constructs from PAn-PAAMPSA-Containing Hydrogels. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040087

AMA Style

Aggas JR, Abasi S, Smith B, Zimmerman M, Deprest M, Guiseppi-Elie A. Microfabricated and 3-D Printed Soft Bioelectronic Constructs from PAn-PAAMPSA-Containing Hydrogels. Bioengineering. 2018; 5(4):87. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040087

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aggas, John R.; Abasi, Sara; Smith, Blake; Zimmerman, Michael; Deprest, Michael; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony. 2018. "Microfabricated and 3-D Printed Soft Bioelectronic Constructs from PAn-PAAMPSA-Containing Hydrogels" Bioengineering 5, no. 4: 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040087

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