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Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040087

Microfabricated and 3-D Printed Soft Bioelectronic Constructs from PAn-PAAMPSA-Containing Hydrogels

1
Bioelectronics, Biosensors and Biochips (C3B®), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2
ABTECH Scientific, Inc., Biotechnology Research Park, 800 East Leigh Street, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Biomaterials for Regenerative Engineering)
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Abstract

The formation of hybrid bioactive and inherently conductive constructs of composites formed from polyaniline-polyacrylamidomethylpropane sulfonic acid (PAn-PAAMPSA) nanomaterials (0.00–10.0 wt%) within poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate-co-N-{Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl} acrylamide)-co-polyethyleneglycol methacrylate) p(HEMA-co-HMMA-co-PEGMA) hydrogels was made possible using microlithographic fabrication and 3-D printing. Hybrid constructs formed by combining a non-conductive base (0.00 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA) and electroconductive (ECH) (varying wt% PAn-PAAMPSA) hydrogels using these two production techniques were directly compared. Hydrogels were electrically characterized using two-point probe resistivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results show that incorporation of >0.10 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA within the base hydrogel matrices was enough to achieve percolation and high conductivity with a membrane resistance (RM) of 2140 Ω and 87.9 Ω for base (0.00 wt%) and ECH (10.0 wt%), respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy of electroconductive hydrogels indicated a bandgap of 2.8 eV that was measurable at concentrations of >0.10 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA. Both base and electroconductive hydrogels supported the attachment and growth of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells. When the base hydrogel was rendered bioactive by the inclusion of collagen (>200 µg/mL), it also supported the attachment, but not the differentiation, of PC-12 neural progenitor cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroconductive hydrogels; polyaniline; 3-D printing; microfabrication; 4-D hydrogels; electrical impedance spectroscopy; collagen; NIH/3T3; PC-12 electroconductive hydrogels; polyaniline; 3-D printing; microfabrication; 4-D hydrogels; electrical impedance spectroscopy; collagen; NIH/3T3; PC-12
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Aggas, J.R.; Abasi, S.; Smith, B.; Zimmerman, M.; Deprest, M.; Guiseppi-Elie, A. Microfabricated and 3-D Printed Soft Bioelectronic Constructs from PAn-PAAMPSA-Containing Hydrogels. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 87.

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