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Bioengineering 2018, 5(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5030075

Endometrial Stem Cells in Farm Animals: Potential Role in Uterine Physiology and Pathology

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán 3780000, Chile
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Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract

The endometrium is an accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Most investigations of endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) have been conducted in humans. In animals, particularly in livestock, eMSC research is scarce. Such cells have been described in the bovine, ovine, caprine, porcine, and equine endometrium. Here we provide the state of the art of eMSCs in farm animals with a focus on the bovine species. In bovines, eMSCs have been identified during the phases of the estrous cycle, during which their functionality and the presence of eMSC-specific markers has been shown to change. Moreover, postpartum inflammation related to endometritis affects the presence and functionality of eMSCs, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) may be the mediator of such changes. We demonstrated that exposure to PGE2 in vitro modifies the transcriptomic profile of eMSCs, showing its potential role in the fate of stem cell activation, migration, and homing during pathological uterine inflammation in endometritis and in healthy puerperal endometrium. Farm animal research on eMSCs can be of great value in translational research for certain uterine pathologies and for immunomodulation of local responses to pathogens, hormones, and other substances. Further research is necessary in areas such as in vivo location of the niches and their immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; endometrium; livestock mesenchymal stem cells; endometrium; livestock
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Lara, E.; Rivera, N.; Cabezas, J.; Navarrete, F.; Saravia, F.; Rodríguez-Alvarez, L.; Castro, F.O. Endometrial Stem Cells in Farm Animals: Potential Role in Uterine Physiology and Pathology. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 75.

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