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Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antimicrobial Activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Extracts

Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Medicines 2019, 6(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6020043
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites)
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Abstract

Background: The phytochemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities of a methanol extract from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Ge), a 50% ethanol (in water) extract from Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (Pe), and a 96% ethanol extract from Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Ue) were investigated. Methods: The phytochemical profiles of the extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals and reducing ferric complexes, and the total phenolic content was tested with the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Cytotoxicity was determined with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Antimicrobial activity of the three plant extracts was investigated against six bacterial strains with the broth microdilution method. Results: Only Pe showed high antioxidant activities compared to the positive controls ascorbic acid and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in DPPH assay; and generally the antioxidant activity order was ascorbic acid or EGCG > Pe > Ue > Ge. The three plant extracts did not show strong cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells after 24 h treatment with IC50 values above 60.53 ± 4.03 μg/mL. Ue was not toxic against the six tested bacterial strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values above 5 mg/mL. Ge showed medium antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter bohemicus, Kocuria kristinae, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus auricularis, and Bacillus megaterium with MICs between 0.31 and 1.25 mg/mL. Pe inhibited the growth of Acinetobacter bohemicus, Micrococcus luteus, and Bacillus megaterium at a MIC of 0.08 mg/mL. Conclusions: The three extracts were low-cytotoxic, but Pe exhibited effective DPPH radical scavenging ability and good antibacterial activity; Ue did not show antioxidant or antibacterial activity; Ge had no antioxidant potential, but medium antibacterial ability against five bacteria strains. Pe and Ge could be further studied for their potential to be developed as antioxidant or antibacterial candidates. View Full-Text
Keywords: TCM; phytochemistry; LC-MS/MS; antioxidant activity; ABTS; DPPH; FRAP; ascorbic acid; EGCG; total phenolics; antimicrobial activity TCM; phytochemistry; LC-MS/MS; antioxidant activity; ABTS; DPPH; FRAP; ascorbic acid; EGCG; total phenolics; antimicrobial activity
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Zhou, J.-X.; Braun, M.S.; Wetterauer, P.; Wetterauer, B.; Wink, M. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antimicrobial Activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Extracts. Medicines 2019, 6, 43.

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