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Toxics 2018, 6(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6040057

Real-Time Monitoring of Tetraselmis suecica in A Saline Environment as Means of Early Water Pollution Detection

1
Natural Sciences and Psychology, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
2
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, BEST Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
3
Dept. Quality and Processing, Animalia AS, Norwegian Meat and Poultry Research Centre, P.O. Box 396 Økern, 0513 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Is It still a Conundrum?)
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Abstract

Biological water pollution, including organic pollutants and their possible transportation, via biofouling and ballast water, has the potential to cause severe economic and health impacts on society and environment. Current water pollution monitoring methods are limited by transportation of samples to the laboratory for analysis, which could take weeks. There is an urgent need for a water quality monitoring technique that generates real-time data. The study aims to assess the feasibility of three sensing techniques to detect and monitor the concentrations of the model species Tetraselmis suecica in real-time using eleven samples for each method. Results showed UV-Vis spectrophotometer detected increasing concentration of Tetraselmis suecica with R2 = 0.9627 and R2 = 0.9672, at 450 nm and 650 nm wavelengths, respectively. Secondly, low-frequency capacitance measurements showed a linear relationship with increasing concentration of Tetraselmis suecica at 150 Hz (R2 = 0.8463) and 180 Hz (R2 = 0.8391). Finally, a planar electromagnetic wave sensor measuring the reflected power S11 amplitude detected increasing cell density at 4 GHz (R2 = 0.8019). View Full-Text
Keywords: biological water pollution; Tetraselmis suecica; UV-Vis spectroscopy; low-frequency impedance analysis; electromagnetic wave sensors; algae detection biological water pollution; Tetraselmis suecica; UV-Vis spectroscopy; low-frequency impedance analysis; electromagnetic wave sensors; algae detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Moejes, K.B.; Sherif, R.S.R.; Dürr, S.; Conlan, S.; Mason, A.; Korostynska, O. Real-Time Monitoring of Tetraselmis suecica in A Saline Environment as Means of Early Water Pollution Detection. Toxics 2018, 6, 57.

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