Next Article in Journal
Intrauterine Exposure to Cadmium Reduces HIF-1 DNA-Binding Ability in Rat Fetal Kidneys
Previous Article in Journal
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine: A Health Risk Compound and a Potential Chemical Warfare Agent
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxics 2018, 6(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030052

Knockdown of Butyrylcholinesterase but Not Inhibition by Chlorpyrifos Alters Early Differentiation Mechanisms in Human Neural Stem Cells

1
Joint Program in Toxicology, Environmental and Occupational Health Science Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
2
Environmental Health Sciences, Robert Stempel School of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
3
Department of Cell Biology & Neuroscience and the Human Genetics Institute of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1811 KB, uploaded 1 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is the evolutionary counterpart to acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Both are expressed early in nervous system development prior to cholinergic synapse formation. The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) primarily exerts toxicity through the inhibition of AChE, which results in excess cholinergic stimulation at the synapse. We hypothesized that the inhibition of AChE and BChE by CPF may impair early neurogenesis in neural stem cells (NSCs). To model neurodevelopment in vitro, we used human NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with a focus on the initial differentiation mechanisms. Over the six days of NSC differentiation, the BChE activity and mRNA expression significantly increased, while the AChE activity and expression remained unchanged. The CPF treatment (10 μM) caused 82% and 92% inhibition of AChE and BChE, respectively. The CPF exposure had no effect on the cell viability or the expression of the differentiation markers HES5, DCX, or MAP2. However, the shRNA-knockdown of the BChE expression resulted in the decreased or delayed expression of the transcription factors HES5 and HES3. BChE may have a role in the differentiation of NSCs independent of, or in addition to, its enzymatic activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: neural stem cell; butyrylcholinesterase; chlorpyrifos; notch; HES5 neural stem cell; butyrylcholinesterase; chlorpyrifos; notch; HES5
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tiethof, A.K.; Richardson, J.R.; Hart, R.P. Knockdown of Butyrylcholinesterase but Not Inhibition by Chlorpyrifos Alters Early Differentiation Mechanisms in Human Neural Stem Cells. Toxics 2018, 6, 52.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxics EISSN 2305-6304 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top