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Toxics 2018, 6(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030046

Aldehydes in Exhaled Breath during E-Cigarette Vaping: Pilot Study Results

1
Organic Analytical Laboratory, Desert Research Institute (DRI), Reno, NV 89512, USA
2
School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prenatal Exposure to Toxics and Risks in Infants)
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Abstract

Several studies have shown the presence of aldehydes (i.e., formaldehyde, acrolein) in mainstream emissions of some e-cigarettes. For this reason, concerns have been raised regarding potential toxicity. The purpose of this research was to measure levels of carbonyls in exhaled breath of e-cigarette users during “vaping” sessions and estimate the respiratory tract (RT) uptake of specific aldehydes, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. We measured concentrations of 12 carbonyls in e-cigarette aerosols produced directly by e-cigarettes and in the exhaled breath of 12 participants (19 sessions). Carbonyls were sampled on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a UV/Vis photodiode detector. We found that in most cases, levels of aldehydes and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were significantly higher (2–125 times) in exhaled e-cigarette breaths than in pre-exposed breath. Exposure levels for the most abundant individual carbonyls in e-cigarette emissions—formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein—were between the limit of quantification (LOQ) and 24.4 μg·puff−1. The mean retention of formaldehyde in the respiratory tract was 99.7 ± 0.9% for all participants, while acetaldehyde retention was 91.6 ± 9.9%. Within the limitation of a small number of participants, our results showed that there is an increase in breath carbonyls during e-cigarette use. View Full-Text
Keywords: aldehydes; breath analysis; e-cigarette emissions; respiratory tract retention; exposure aldehydes; breath analysis; e-cigarette emissions; respiratory tract retention; exposure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Samburova, V.; Bhattarai, C.; Strickland, M.; Darrow, L.; Angermann, J.; Son, Y.; Khlystov, A. Aldehydes in Exhaled Breath during E-Cigarette Vaping: Pilot Study Results. Toxics 2018, 6, 46.

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