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Toxics 2018, 6(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030034

Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles-Facilitated Intracellular Delivery of siRNA(s) Targeting Calcium Ion Channels Efficiently Kills Breast Cancer Cells

1
Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Wellington Rd & Blackburn Rd, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, North South University, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh
Mohammad Borhan Uddin and Balakavitha Balaravi Pillai are equally contributed authors.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles Toxicity and Impacts on Biodiversity)
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Abstract

Specific gene knockdown facilitated by short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a potential approach for suppressing the expression of ion channels and transporter proteins to kill breast cancer cells. The overexpression of calcium ion channels and transporter genes is seen in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Since naked siRNA is anionic and prone to nuclease-mediated degradation, it has limited permeability across the cationic cell membrane and short systemic half-life, respectively. Carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles were formulated, characterized, loaded with a series of siRNAs, and delivered into MCF-7 and 4T1 breast cancer cells to selectively knockdown the respective calcium and magnesium ion channels and transporters. Individual knockdown of TRPC6, TRPM7, TRPM8, SLC41A1, SLC41A2, ORAI1, ORAI3, and ATP2C1 genes showed significant reduction (p < 0.001) in cell viability depending on the cancer cell type. From a variety of combinations of siRNAs, the combination of TRPC6, TRPM8, SLC41A2, and MAGT1 siRNAs delivered via CA produced the greatest cell viability reduction, resulting in a cytotoxicity effect of 57.06 ± 3.72% (p < 0.05) and 59.83 ± 2.309% (p = 0.09) in 4T1 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. Some of the combinations were shown to suppress the Akt pathway in Western Blot analysis when compared to the controls. Therefore, CA-siRNA-facilitated gene knockdown in vitro holds a high prospect for deregulating cell proliferation and survival pathways through the modulation of Ca2+ signaling in breast cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonate apatite; siRNA; MCF-7 breast cancer cell; cytotoxicity; ion channels and transporter genes carbonate apatite; siRNA; MCF-7 breast cancer cell; cytotoxicity; ion channels and transporter genes
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Uddin, M.B.; Balaravi Pillai, B.; Tha, K.K.; Ashaie, M.; Karim, M.E.; Chowdhury, E.H. Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles-Facilitated Intracellular Delivery of siRNA(s) Targeting Calcium Ion Channels Efficiently Kills Breast Cancer Cells. Toxics 2018, 6, 34.

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