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Open AccessArticle

Degradation of Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Insecticides in Beverages: Implications for Risk Assessment

Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Laboratory for Exposure Assessment and Development for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Department of Chemistry, Saint Francis University, Loretto, PA 15940, USA
Analytical Services Lab—Americas, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2018, 6(1), 11;
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticide Environmental Risk Assessments)
Since urinary insecticide metabolites are commonly used as biomarkers of exposure, it is important that we quantify whether insecticides degrade in food and beverages in order to better perform risk assessment. This study was designed to quantify degradation of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, orange juice, and red wine were fortified with 500 ng/mL diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin, and aliquots were extracted several times over a 15-day storage period at 2.5 °C. Overall, statistically significant loss of at least one insecticide was observed in each matrix, and at least five out of seven insecticides demonstrated a statistically significant loss in all matrices except orange juice. An investigation of an alternative mechanism of insecticide loss—adsorption onto the glass surface of the storage jars—was carried out, which indicated that this mechanism of loss is insignificant. Results of this work suggest that insecticides degrade in these beverages, and this degradation may lead to pre-existing insecticide degradates in the beverages, suggesting that caution should be exercised when using urinary insecticide metabolites to assess exposure and risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; degradation; biomarkers of exposure; risk assessment; GC-ECD pesticides; degradation; biomarkers of exposure; risk assessment; GC-ECD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Radford, S.A.; Panuwet, P.; Hunter Jr., R.E.; Barr, D.B.; Ryan, P.B. Degradation of Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Insecticides in Beverages: Implications for Risk Assessment. Toxics 2018, 6, 11.

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