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Article

Association between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Adaptive Behavior in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

1
Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 813 72 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Institute of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 813 72 Bratislava, Slovakia
3
Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology, 831 05 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Matteo Vitali 
Toxics 2022, 10(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10040189
Received: 15 February 2022 / Revised: 9 April 2022 / Accepted: 11 April 2022 / Published: 13 April 2022
The study focuses on current issues of adaptive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and on the possible risk factor of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Children examined at the Academic Research Center for Autism (ARCA) in Bratislava were involved in the study. The study sample included 84 children (71 boys) with ASD (average age 5.35 years) and a non-ASD group of 24 children (20 boys; average age 8.10 years). The “ETS Questionnaire” focused on the detection of parental smoking habits and other ETS exposures. The concentrations of cotinine in urine were measured by ELISA kit. A significant delay in adaptive behavior of children with ASD in comparison with the non-ASD group was identified. The significant differences were in adaptive behavior, communication, and everyday skills. Children with ASD were more likely to be exposed to ETS, especially in the household. Good agreement was found between objective and subjective ETS exposure indicators (kappa = 0.613). Self-reported exposure to ETS corresponded significantly with the median levels of urinary cotinine. In addition to evaluation and assessment of the quality of adaptive behavior, an important goal of further research should be to identify, investigate, and eliminate environmental factors that interfere with adaptive behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; adaptive behavior; risk factors; environmental tobacco smoke; cotinine autism spectrum disorder; adaptive behavior; risk factors; environmental tobacco smoke; cotinine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szapuova, Z.J.; Argalasova, L.; Vondrova, D.; Jansakova, K.; Belica, I.; Kopcikova, M.; Babinska, K.; Ostatnikova, D. Association between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Adaptive Behavior in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Toxics 2022, 10, 189. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10040189

AMA Style

Szapuova ZJ, Argalasova L, Vondrova D, Jansakova K, Belica I, Kopcikova M, Babinska K, Ostatnikova D. Association between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Adaptive Behavior in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Toxics. 2022; 10(4):189. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10040189

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szapuova, Zofia Janik, Lubica Argalasova, Diana Vondrova, Katarina Jansakova, Ivan Belica, Maria Kopcikova, Katarina Babinska, and Daniela Ostatnikova. 2022. "Association between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Adaptive Behavior in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder" Toxics 10, no. 4: 189. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10040189

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